By Clements M.P., Hendry D.F.
A better half to fiscal Forecasting presents an obtainable and finished account of modern advancements in financial forecasting. all the chapters has been particularly written through knowledgeable within the box, bringing jointly in one quantity various contrasting techniques and perspectives. Forecasting is a realistic enterprise, such a lot of of the chapters are aimed toward practitioners and nonspecialists.This booklet surveys a box that has increased swiftly lately. There are not any different up to date remedies that survey forecasting in one quantity. at the moment, the reader has little choice yet to find magazine articles and books which regularly extol the virtues of 1 process between many, or clarify only one of the numerous difficulties that beset financial forecasting. The better half offers a accomplished account of the top methods and modeling techniques which are often hired. an in depth editorial review areas the contributions in context, and exhibits their interconnections and commonalities.
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Additional info for A Companion to Economic Forecasting
However, even for relatively simple models, exact analytic results are not available, so calculation of forecasts and their characteristics may involve numerical integration, analytic approximations, Monte Carlo simulation, or bootstrapping. See Ericsson and Marquez (1998) for a summary. Post-evaluation analysis concerns the presentation of the forecasts and their characteristics, once calculated. Tables and graphs are common modes – graphs are used extensively below. Sometimes, the properties of forecasts are summarized through a statistic, as in the Chow (1960) statistic and the forecast-encompassing statistic; see Chong and Hendry (1986) on the latter.
The value c is the price elasticity of supply. See Tinbergen (1931) and Suits (1955) for pivotal contributions on the cobweb model, and Henderson and Quandt (1971, pp. 142–5) for an exposition. 25). 25) without the disturbances, whose future values are by deﬁnition unknown: 10T+h = bzT+h 2 3eT+h = cyT+h−1 h = 1, . . , H. 27) may be written more explicitly as ⎡0T +1⎤ ⎢e ⎥ ⎣ T +1⎦ ⎡bz ⎤ = ⎢ T+1 ⎥ ⎣cyT ⎦ ⎡0T +2 ⎤ ⎢e ⎥ ⎣ T +2 ⎦ ⎡bz ⎤ = ⎢ T +2 ⎥ ⎣cyT+1 ⎦ M ⎡0T + h⎤ ⎢e ⎥ ⎣ T+ h ⎦ ⎡bz ⎤ = ⎢ T+ h ⎥ ⎣cyT+ h−1 ⎦ M ⎡0T + H−1⎤ ⎡bzT +H−1 ⎤ ⎢e ⎥=⎢ ⎥ ⎣ T + H−1⎦ ⎣cyT +H−2 ⎦ ⎡0T + H⎤ ⎢e ⎥ ⎣ T+ H ⎦ ⎡bz ⎤ = ⎢ T +H ⎥ .
21) the forecast errors are h−1 eT+h = ∑u T +h−i i=0 and the MSFE is h = 1, . . 22) PREDICTABLE UNCERTAINTY 33 var(eT+h) = hσ 2 h = 1, . . , H. 23) The predicted MSFE increases in the forecast horizon h, and in fact increases linearly in h, and without bound. 20) is the DGP. 2a. 2a. 2b portray two very different patterns for the anticipated (or predicted) forecast uncertainty, and their comparison illustrates how model choice can affect those patterns. 2b: only the models themselves differ. More generally, static models often imply predicted forecast uncertainty that is time invariant or nearly so, whereas dynamic models generally imply time-dependent predicted forecast uncertainty, often increasing in the forecast horizon.