By Owen Chadwick
May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the motives and effects of the tip of the historical Papal kingdom, and the mental pressures upon outdated Rome because it got here below assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never simply from Italy, yet from liberal events in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy was once to be completed, the kingdom must disappear. those pressures triggered Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to aim to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly points of Catholic religion. whilst they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. hence, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority can be way more centralized in Rome.
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Additional info for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
99-100. Antonio Garibaldi to Bernetti, 9 May 1834, La Condamnation de Lamennais, 466. 3O Gregory XVI are little books full of imprudence, and there are dark machinations. I was so glad about the submission which Lamennais made on n December 1833. And now I am filled with horror even at the first glance at this book; and how it breaks the bonds of loyalty to princes and encourages sedition and disobedience to law. This encyclical used an unusually heavy hammer for a short book. Popes ought not publicly to express the horror they felt 'at the first glance' (ex primo oculomm obtutu).
He consciously chose mixed marriages as his battle-ground. He knew that Gregory XVI would back him in disobedience to the rules of the Prussian government. 19 Prussian officials tried to persuade Droste zu Vischering to conform—in vain. A decree ordered that he perform no duties of his office—in vain. On 20 November 1837 police arrested the Archbishop and confined him in the fortress at Minden. The French Revolution and Napoleon kidnapped two popes and left Europe relatively unmoved. That a Protestant government should throw an archbishop into gaol caused vast indignation.
It condemned the doctrine of a just revolution—or at least the encouragement by the Church of rebellion against a lawful sovereign (which were not the same thing, but felt to be at that moment the same thing). It condemned the doctrine that Church and State ought to be separated. No pope could be expected to preach the equality of all religions. This encyclical condemned the Napoleonic and Lamennaisian doctrine that the practitioners of all religions ought to have the same legal rights in the State.