By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is without doubt one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic relatives (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken via nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and by means of a minimum of an identical variety of audio system in Turkey and a few heart east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and via its minimum vocalic approach: in basic terms vowels. even though Abkhaz was once studied through a few students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless must be competently defined. Abkhaz is the single West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical periods, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in type of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative development being represented no longer through case endings, as in similar Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet by means of order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded via a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and via few suffixes. Verbs will be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical cartoon of Abkhaz comprises information regarding its phonological procedure, morphology, and syntax. a brief textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Additional resources for Abkhaz
Apswa-abaz a alek'sik'a iazk'u aoc'erk'k. a (Sketches of the Abkhaz-Abaza Lexicon) . Kart: Metsniereba, 86 pp. 1984. Iz istorii razvitija abkhazskogo literaturnogo jazyka [On the History of the Development of the Abkhaz Literary Language] . Sukhum: Alashara, 87 pp. BA, v . 1934. 0 printsipakh postroenija terminologii abkhazskogo jazyka [On the principles of creation of terminology in the Abkhaz language] . In: Trudy Abkhazkogo Nauchno-Issledovatel 'skogo Instituta Kul'tury, vyp. 2, Sukhum, p. 47-162.
D. t 0a 'whJchshe-hear-PlDF:NFlN ART-word= the word she heard', s-x-a-c'
Neologisms. The natural process of creating new words was accelerated during work on the first translations of Christian literature into Abkhaz in the last decades of the 19th c. During Soviet times, a mass of neologisms were created (cf. Khetsija 1988), often coined according to their Russian (a:nd in early Soviet times, probably sometimes also according to Georgian) models, cf. 8-k"ga/,ara 'speech', lit. 'standing on top', resembling Russian vystuplenie. In other cases the derivation was original, cf.