By Perminder Sachdev
This quantity offers the 1st complete account of the clinical and medical points of akathisia and similar syndromes akin to stressed legs syndrome (RLS), different kinds of motor restlessness, and neuroleptic-induced dysphoria. the main target is on drug-induced akathisia and its quite a few subtypes. the writer explores its courting to the restlessness brought on by different neurological problems, offers a brand new synthesis of the pathophysiological mechanisms of akathisia, and gives arguments for brand new operational standards for the examine analysis of drug-induced akathisia. techniques for the size of akathisia also are mentioned, as are therapy ways. The e-book should be fairly valuable for psychiatrists, neurologists, and different physicians looking a greater realizing of those disabling syndromes.
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Additional resources for Akathisia and Restless Legs
There are a number of disorders in which a neuropathy cannot be established with conventional electrodiagnostic studies, yet the symptoms plague the patient (Spillane et al, 1971). The diagnostic possibilities in such cases include metabolic-endocrine disorders, autoimmune illnesses, infections, drug toxicity, deficiency disorders, systemic malignancies and genetic disorders, and the details are discussed in Chapter 12. Clinical manifestations The characteristic feature of restlessness is motor activity that is purposeless, non-goal-directed, repetitive and poorly organized.
This study has to be replicated, but the idea that akathisia may be a not uncommon feature of PD is becoming generally accepted. The association of akathisia with drug-induced parkinsonism has also received attention, with some authors suggesting that there may be two subtypes of drug-induced akathisia, one being associated with parkinsonism and having a different pharmacological profile (Braude et al, 1983). This aspect remains open to further investigation. Restless legs syndrome and akathisia In spite of its origin in the pre-neuroleptic era, the major association of akathisia with neuroleptic drugs has led to the term akathisia becoming largely synonymous with drug-induced akathisia.
A factor analysis revealed two factors: 'attention' and 'restlessness and fidgetiness'. Four other items were added to give a total of 43 items, which were reduced to 24 after a principal-components analysis was performed. M. M. Item definitions: Each behaviour rated on a 5-point scale of frequency (1 = almost never, 5 = almost always). Psychometric validity: Principal-components analysis revealed 4 factors- 'attention', 'hyperactivity', 'social' and 'oppositional'. Reliability: Alpha highly significant on all factors.