By Laurence G. Britton
Written through Laurence Britton, who has over twenty years' event within the fields of static ignition and technique hearth and explosion risks learn, this source addresses a space no longer greatly coated in strategy defense criteria or literature: figuring out and decreasing power dangers linked to static electrical energy. The booklet covers the character of static electrical energy, features and potent energies of alternative static assets, recommendations for comparing static electrical energy dangers, common bonding, grounding, and different recommendations used to manage static or hinder ignition, gases and drinks, powders and hybrid combinations.
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Extra resources for Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations
1). Propane–air–nitrogen ignition tests were conducted using a 70-mmdiameter spherical electrode suspended above a negatively charged plastic sheet . 6 mJ were ignited at an ignition frequency of 40%, positive brush discharges were attributed a maximum effective energy of about 4 mJ. This work has been widely cited without reference to ignition frequency. 1 shows that electrodes of diameter £15 mm produce brush discharges with effective energies less than 1 mJ. This is partly offset by the greater likelihood of producing brush discharges with smaller diameter electrodes.
The ranges of ignitable concentrations are superimposed on a spark ignition energy curve for hexane in air calculated from data in . Both data sets are assumed to be characteristic of n-hexane, unbiased by the presence of methylcyclopentane or hexane isomers (dimethylbutanes and methylpentanes). 1 shows two interesting phenomena that have not previously been recognized. First, for a given electrode the effective energy is much greater at the lean end of the ignitable concentration range than at the rich end.
1. Effective Energy Also known as “equivalent energy,” this is the spark ignition energy of the least easily ignitable mixture that can be ignited by a particular ignition source, such as a brush discharge under defined geometrical conditions. The maximum effective energy is the largest effective energy exhibited by a particular category of ignition source,such as the entire category of 18 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY brush discharges. Figure 2-5 illustrates the maximum effective energies of various ignition sources including types of static discharge [10,157].