By Johannes Simon Vrouwenvelder
This booklet relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane parts with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling.
High caliber ingesting water should be produced with membrane filtration techniques like opposite osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF). because the worldwide call for for clean fresh water is expanding, those membrane applied sciences are more and more vital. probably the most severe difficulties in RO/NF functions is biofouling - over the top progress of biomass - affecting the functionality of the RO/NF structures. this is often as a result of the elevate in strain drop throughout membrane parts (feed-concentrate channel), the lessen in membrane permeability or the rise in salt passage. those phenomena lead to the necessity to elevate the feed strain to keep up consistent construction and to scrub the membrane components chemically. This e-book relates biomass accumulation in spiral wound RO and NF membrane components with membrane functionality and hydrodynamics and determines parameters influencing biofouling. It makes a speciality of the advance of biomass within the feed-concentrate (feed-spacer) channel and its impression on strain drop and move distribution. it may be used to increase an necessary technique to keep watch over biofouling in spiral wound membrane platforms. so much prior and current tips on how to keep an eye on biofouling haven't been very winning. an summary of numerous strength complementary techniques to resolve biofouling is given and an built-in technique for biofouling keep watch over is proposed. Read more...
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Extra resources for Biofouling of spiral wound membrane systems
1995). , 2000). Balancing of prevention (pretreatment and preventive cleanings) and control actions (cleanings) may be the most cost effective way to operate membrane installations. 5). Schaule et al. (1993) reported that the fouling deposit in membranes, from a plant with an elevated feed channel pressure, before and after cleaning contained identical TDC values (1 ϫ 108 – 2 ϫ 108 cells cmϪ2), supporting findings of our study. Kappelhof et al. (2003) showed that cleaning reduced the microbial activity of the biomass in the membrane element but within three weeks the original microbial activity was fully restored.
1B). 4). 1A). Also, data from the case studies a and b were excluded (see discussion). 4). However, the data of the individual parameters were limited and showed no relationship with ΔNPD (data not shown). 5 Maximum 91 13 73 10 47 26 Use of biological parameters of water to predict fouling The dose-effect studies demonstrated that the feed water quality plays a role in the ΔNPD. This suggests the use of a biological parameter of the feed water as a relative simple and direct method to assess the biofouling potential of the feed water of a membrane filtration installation.
Not determined. 1 Water source: G, anaerobic groundwater; S, surface water; W, (pretreated) waste water. 2 Water treatment: A, aeration; RBF, river bank filtration; DMF, dual media filtration; CS, coagulation sedimentation; GACF, granular activated carbon filtration; O3, ozonation; RSF, rapid sand filtration; S, softening; SSF, slow sand filtration; UF, ultrafiltration. 3 total of inorganic metals analyzed or derived from ashes of material scraped from feed side of membrane. 1 Raw water source, water treatment prior to membrane filtration (NF or RO), pressure drop increase (ΔNPD), feed water quality parameters (TOC, ATP and AOC) and total and 7 of the metals with the highest concentration in the membrane element 24 Biofouling of Spiral Wound Membrane Systems Biofouling studies in NF and RO installations 25 Normalized pressure drop The plants were operated at a constant flux by increasing the feed pressure.