Download e-book for iPad: Bipolar Disorders by Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan José López-Ibor Jr.,

By Mario Maj, Hagop S. Akiskal, Juan José López-Ibor Jr., Norman Sartorius

Bipolar affliction is a major psychological sickness regarding episodes of significant mania and melancholy and impacts nearly one to 3 percentage of the inhabitants. in response to the nationwide Institute of psychological well-being approximately million contributors within the usa on my own are clinically determined with this affliction.

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Additional resources for Bipolar Disorders

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Severely psychotic mixed states are at risk for being misdiagnosed as schizoaffective. Defined as the simultaneous presence of depressive and hypo/manic symptoms, mixed states represented a major line of evidence for Kraepelin's concept linking mania and depression. As reviewed earlier in the historical section of this chapter, for him the diagnosis of mixed episodes was justified if any elements from affective, psychomotor and cognitive domains were incongruent with the other two: for instance, anxious and depressive cognitions occurring during a manic episode.

Psychopharmaceutical trials, in particular, have benefited from the use of such scales. Hypomania The signs and symptoms of hypomanic episodes as described in DSM-IV are insufficiently discriminatory from those for mania. 7 mania . . . . . . Proposed enrichment of the DSM-IV symptomatologic criteria for EuphoriaÐwhich can easily shift to irritability and hostility Psychomotor activation Boundless energy Grandiose self-esteem Pressure of speechÐflight of ideas Heightened perceptions Marked distractibility of attention Little need for sleep Increased risk-takingÐsquandering money Social disinhibition Lechery DenialÐloss of insightÐimpaired judgement 18 BIPOLAR DISORDER major life disruptions are uncharacteristicÐindeed, hypomania can be adaptive [62, 109].

However, postpartum maniaÐoften mixed or schizophreniform in natureÐshould, on the basis of family history and course, be probably classified under bipolar I disorder [167]. Dilsaver et al [168] and Cassidy et al [169] have recently described different cross-sectional subtypes within the larger manic population. We will not attempt to review this fascinating literature, which is still inconclusive, in part because there is virtually no data on the prospectively defined longitudinal stability of these subtypes.

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