Read e-book online Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment PDF

By Harold F. Hemond

Chemical destiny and shipping within the Environment is a textbook for higher department undergraduate and graduate scholars learning environmental sciences in engineering, hydrology, chemistry, and different comparable disciplines. It covers the elemental rules of mass delivery and chemical partitioning, and the transformation of gear in floor water, in groundwater or subsurface environments, and within the surroundings. 3 significant areas-surface water, flooring water, and air-are coated, with descriptive overviews for every zone. every one significant part starts via describing atmosphere: its controlling actual, chemical, and organic tactics. The e-book additionally comprises examples of universal environmental difficulties and contains challenge units on the finish of every bankruptcy.

Text that has been built from a direction taught at MIT
Broad-based assurance of the environmental sciences
A extra rigorous remedy of shipping than present in different texts
workout units on the finish of every chapter
Examples of present environmental difficulties totally built-in into the text
considerable references for entry to the first literature
a number of illustrations all through

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Extra resources for Chemical Fate and Transport in the Environment

Sample text

1-15] and [1-16]. Equations [1-18] are mathematically more complex than first-order kinetics. In some cases, however, the situation can be simplified because one of the chemicals involved in a reaction is approximately constant in concentration. 4 M (recall the treatment of water in the reaction of Eq. [1-12]). If a chemical is reacting with the hydrogen ion in a system where other chemical reactions keep the pH nearly constant, then the concentration of H + may be taken as constant. In such cases, we can conveniently multiply the rate constant k by the constant chemical concentration to get a new rate constant, kr.

52). 2 X 10~ 8 M. Note that this is only a third of the activity that would exist in water of low ionic strength. 6 Chemical Kinetics Many environmental fate processes, such as the degradation of pollu­ tant chemicals, are not usefully modeled with equilibrium chemistry because the rate of the reaction is more important to quantify than the final composition of the system. For example, even though we may know that at equilibrium a certain chemical will be degraded, it is crucial to know whether degradation will take seconds, years, or per­ haps centuries.

1981). "Introduction to Organic Chemistry," 2nd ed. Macmillan, New York. J. (1981). " Wiley, New York. T. (1965). "Chemical Thermodynamics," 2nd ed. Freeman, San Francisco, CA. ) (1990). "CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics," 70th ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. C. (1979). Solubilities and Partitioning. 2. Relationships between Aqueous Solubilities, Partition Coefficients, and Molecular Surface Areas of Rigid Aromatic Hydrocarbons. /. Chem. Eng. Data 24:127-129. 1 Nature of Surface Waters Surface waters, including rivers, streams, lakes, and estuaries, were among the first environmental media to receive widespread attention for chemical pollution problems.

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