By Steven Pinker, Timothy E. Moore, Irving Biederman, Stephen P. Schwartz, Anne Erreich, Judith Winzemer Mayer & Virginia Valian
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Additional info for Cognition, Vol. 7, No. 3
Thus the Semantics-Induced Equivalence heuristic would never realize that the different tokens of the phrase “the cop” in 4Ca-e) 4. (a) (b) (c) Cd) (e) The The The The The cop cop cop cop cop frightens the thief. is frightened by the thief. tends to like thieves. who arrests thieves... who thieves frighten... are examples of the same type of sentence constituent, since in the different sentences and phrases it functions variously as subject or object of the under- 258 Stcwl Pinker lying proposition, or as part of the principal proposition or one of the secondary propositions.
If they match, the learner leaves his grammar untouched and proceeds to the next pair. If they do not match, the learner randomly decides between two courses of action. He can discard, at random, any of the transformations he 264 Steven Pinker used to derive the incorrect string; or, he can hypothesize a set consisting of all the transformations capable of transforming the deep structure to the input string in conjunction with the rest of the grammar, and select one of these transformations at random for inclusion in the grammar.
Anderson suggests that 248 Steven Pinker Figure 3. Semantic structure (a) to be fitted onto the string(b) in various ways by the Tree-fitting heuristic. In this formalism for semantic structures (HAM; Anderson and Bower, 1973), S = subject, P = predicate, R = relation, 0 = object, X and Y represent individuals, and capitalized terms are concepts, which carrespond to words. this pragmatic information is communicated to the child during his normal interactions with adults; in other words, the social and communicative context in which a sentence is uttered makes it clear what the adult intends to assert about what (see Bruner, 1975, for supporting arguments and evidence).