By Aaron T. Beck MD, Denise D. Davis PhD, Arthur Freeman EdD
New to This Edition
*Incorporates state-of-the-art scientific methods and learn; expands the cognitive conception of character disorder.
*Chapters on neural mechanisms, cultural range concerns, and depressive character disorder.
*Chapters on co-occurring problems and administration of scientific challenges.
*Disorder-specific chapters now contain sections on key remedy targets, growth and termination, and clinician self-care.
*Discusses DSM-5 techniques and diagnostic criteria.
*Reviews advances in assessing character beliefs.
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Extra resources for Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders, Third Edition
By assigning meanings to events, the cognitive structures start a chain reaction culminating in the kinds of overt behavior (strategies) that are attributed to personality traits. Behavioral patterns that we commonly ascribe to personality traits or dispositions (“honest,” “shy,” “outgoing”) consequently represent interpersonal strategies developed from the interaction between innate dispositions and environmental influences. Each strategy has a specific, adaptive goal- oriented function. Attributes such as dependency and autonomy, which are conceptualized in motivational theories of personality as basic drives, may be viewed as a function of a conglomerate of basic schemas.
Each of these interpersonal strategies represents a special sector of the personality, commonly referred to as traits. Each of the strategies (or traits) is tailored to draw on the relevant resources. The strategies are activated in response to the various cravings, urges, and drives and are reinforced by pleasure when the urges are satisfied. On the other hand, failure of a strategy is followed by pain. For example, acceptance by a romantic partner is rewarded by gratification, whereas rejection brings dejection.
It may also be useful to consider the concepts of internalizing and externalizing when observing clinical signs of the various strategies. , impulsive, reactive, hyperactive, aggressive). , avoidant, depressive). , borderline, passive– aggressive). The overlap with grouping by main resources (autonomous or sociotropic) is only partial, and may offer further explanation of differences within those groups. Although this conceptualization remains to be confirmed by research, it may provide a clinically helpful method to recognize patterns, gather further data, communicate with patients, and develop treatment interventions.