Download e-book for iPad: Coherent Optics - Fundamentals and Applns by W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz

By W. Lauterborn, T. Kurz

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The simple average point spread function is obtained by summing all the point spread functions in the normal way, as would happen in a longexposure image. We therefore denote it (P(~,TJ)}LE and the corresponding long-exposure OTF by (1-l(U,V)}LE. g. by an adaptive 16 tip-tilt mirror), then one would obtain an average point spread function called the short-exposure point spread function, (p(e, "l)}SE and the corresponding short-exposure OTF is denoted (1l(u, V)}SE. (16): it is the correlation of the complex amplitude across the telescope apert ure.

7 . 102o photonsm- 2 s-l = 192Wm- 2 ; from a more detailed calculation one obtains I sat = 64 W m -2. For a typical spot size of 1", which corresponds to 45 cm at an altitude of 92 km, saturation is not a major concern for continuous-wave lasers with output powers of a few Watts. For pulsed lasers, however, the situation is very different. Depending on the pulse format, their peak power can be many orders of magnitude higher than the average power. For example, a laser system with a pulse duration of 20 ns, a pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz, and an average output power of 10 W would have a peak power of 50 k W during the pulses, which would badly saturate the D 2 line for any useful spot diameter.

1 seeing: its wild fluctuations have a serious effect on the performance of a laser guide star system, and we should make all efforts to monitor it, and respond quickly to changes, in order to optimize the observing program. The effective height h of the sodium layer shows similar variations. They do not affect the performance of the system per se, but they have to be taken into account in the focusing procedures. For a large telescope, the sodium layer is very far out offocus (see Fig. 6); this means that the wavefront sensor has to be mounted on a translation stage to follow the focus of the laser guide star, whose distance h/ cos z changes with hand with the zenith angle z.

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