By Hans Jurgen Grabke, Michael Schutze
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Extra info for Corrosion by Carbon and Nitrogen: Metal Dusting, Carburisation and Nitridation (EFC 41)
84 (1980) 1068– 1071. 19. Münster, P. J. Grabke: Archiv Eisenhüttenwes. 51 (1980) 319–324. 20. D. A. Ramanarayanan: Mat. Corr. 50 (1999) 634– 639. 21. L. Fearing; J. A. Ruth and G. Simkovich: Solid State Ionics 12 (1984) 145–151. 22. ; G. J. Grabke; Q. Wei; E. Pippel and J. Woltersdorf: Steel Research 71 (2000) No. 5 179–184. 23. ; G. J. Grabke: Interface Controlled Materials Vol. 9 (2000) EUROMAT 99, M. Rühle; H. Gleiter (Eds), Wiley-VCH 30–37. 24. J. M. Müller-Lorenz: Steel Res. 66 (1995) 252–258.
Also plotted is the general corrosion rate of pure Fe measured under the same conditions for comparison. A detailed discussion of the temperature dependence of the metal dusting of Fe has been published previously . Similar to the behavior of Fe, the effect of temperature on the metal dusting rate can be divided into three regimes – these regimes are marked in Fig. 1. In regime I, which extends from 650 ∞F (343 ∞C) to 850 ∞F (454 ∞C), there is a gradual increase in corrosion rate with temperature with a very small slope.
11a is a cross-section of the same sample of 11/4Cr–1/2Mo steel (Fig. 10) showing a surface layer of M3C and carbon deposit on M3C. The M3C at the interface is seen to be highly serrated. The carbon deposit is a mixture of amorphous and graphitic carbon. The nature of carbon layer next to M3C is predominantly graphitic (~70%), the rest being amorphous. An SAED pattern, taken in the M3C/carbon interfacial area at a beam orientation of B =  Fe3C, Fig. 11b, confirms that the carbon in this region is predominantly graphitic.