By Alan R. Stone (auth.), F. Lamberti, C. E. Taylor (eds.)
The cyst nematodes are a huge staff of plant pathogens of monetary significance in lots of international locations in the course of the global. substantial yield losses were attributed to cyst nematodes attacking potatoes, sugar beet, soybean and cereals. as a result of the protecting cyst that's shaped, which encloses the eggs, they pose detailed difficulties of their regulate and in addition in fighting their distribution in soil from infested parts. there was a lot learn on many features of the biology of cyst nematodes and the massive variety of courses are testimony to their value as crop pests and of the curiosity of nematologists within the team. however, they proceed to pose difficulties as a result of complexity in their phylogeny and taxonomy and there's nonetheless a lot to be investigated on their biology, really with these elements which relate to enhancing the effectiveness of keep watch over. in lots of respects the biology of many of the cyst nematode species is identical, even if with adaptations because of various interactions with hosts and geographical place. therefore, examine on anyone species has common applicability and this is often relatively so with reference to review of keep watch over measures, or to the method of soil sampling for the evaluation of populations ahead of transforming into crops.
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Extra resources for Cyst Nematodes
The arms lie beneath and parallel to the vulval bridge and their ends are forked or furcated. The origin, nature and function of the underbridge have not been fully elucidated although different workers have given views about it (Cooper, 1955; Thorne, 1961; Green, 1975). In young cysts of H. trifolii, Mulvey (1959) reported another bridge-like structure (Mulvey's bridge) located just below the level of the fenestra and at right angles to the underbridge; he suggested this might be hardened muscle tissue which in the white female controlled the opening or closing of the vagina.
H. carotae and in some old cysts, the vulval bridge can disappear along with the semifenestrae, giving a false appearance of a circumfenestrate cyst. In the second type (bifenestrate) the semi fenestrae also disintegrate, leaving two openings each a full or more than half circle on each side of a strong, wide vulval bridge. On cysts of many Heterodera species the fenestra is encircled by a band of cuticle which extends to the cuticular surface of the cyst and was designated by Cooper (1955) as the basin.
H. schachtii, the vagina or its remnants persist in the vulval cone and ridges or folds give it a striated appearance, like a sheaf of grain, and because of this Taylor (1957) called it "sheaf-like organ". Proximally, the vagina is thought to thicken to form the "basal bulb" (Cooper, 1955) or "cervix" (Thorne, 1961) which although initially hollow, later becomes solid forming two arms extending across the vulval cone and becoming linked to the cyst wall; this is the underbridge. The arms lie beneath and parallel to the vulval bridge and their ends are forked or furcated.