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Denoted by IQR. - (Median of the bottom Cyxl Using n - 1 degrees of freedom in the Variance S2 = divisor maintains S2 as an unbiased estimate of the true variance (in effect, one degree of freedom has already been used up in calculating as an estimate of the true mean). Standard deviation S , the positive square root of the variance. It has the same units as the central tendency statistics, which can be a great advantage. Because it is the square root of an unbiased quantity (S’) it is actually a slightly biased estimator of the true value (a),especially for small samples (Zar 1996, p.

3 MEETING MANAGEMENT’S INFORMATION NEEDS Water quality sampling is most often carried out in support of water quality management; some is for scientific enquiry. Routine monitoring is often a check on the effectiveness of a pollution control scheme-evaluating compliance with standards or long-term trends in quality. An intensive survey is often an attempt to gain a better understanding of the chemical, biological, and physical processes operating in a particular body of water. This information is useful for designing pollution control schemes and (when repeated over time) for assessing their effectiveness.

All we will need is the distribution of which is known as the unit normal distribution (or standard normal distribution-an example follows), and so we’ll need only one table. 6. I8It was thought at one time that all measurements fitted a normal distribution (Menand 2001, chapter 8 [220]). ” 28 BASIC CONCEPTS OF PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS Fig. 6 Probability density function (pdf) for the unit normal distribution. The mean of this distribution is zero (as are the median and mode) and its standard deviation is 1 (hence the term “unit normal distribution”).

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