Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set, Second - download pdf or read online

By Lindsay Allen, Andrew Prentice, Benjamin Caballero

This Second Edition is a radical revision and 20% growth of the 1998 free up, reflecting the ongoing medical advances within the box of human nutrients. Now a four-volume set, approximately three hundred articles with concise, updated details are complemented by means of an award-winning indexing method. integrated is improved insurance of epidemiology of diet-related ailments, useful meals, nutrition defense, scientific meals and gastrointestinal problems. nearly everybody will locate the Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition an easy-to-use source making it an amazing reference selection for either the pro and the non-professional alike.

Also to be had on-line through ScienceDirect – that includes huge shopping, looking, and inner cross-referencing among articles within the paintings, plus dynamic linking to magazine articles and summary databases, making navigation versatile and straightforward. for additional info, pricing innovations and availability stopover at www.info.sciencedirect.com.

* Now a four-volume set with over 250 articles
* extended assurance of epidemiology of diet-related illnesses, sensible meals, nutrition defense, and gastrointestinal problems, between different topics

* Browse the complete paintings by way of quantity, authors or article titles
* complete and broad topic index might be searched or browsed on-line, and takes you on to the listed paragraph, part, determine or table
* simple and complex seek performance around the complete paintings or by means of particular quantity
* clients can construct, keep and re-run seraches, in addition to mix kept searches
* large inner cross-referencing and dynamic linking from biliographic references to primary-source fabric, expanding the scope of your study speedily and successfully
* All articles on hand as full-text HTML documents, or as PDF records that may be considered, downloaded or revealed of their unique structure

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Additional resources for Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition, Four-Volume Set, Second Edition

Example text

Energy balance regulation is an extremely complex process composed of multiple interacting homeostatic and behavioral pathways aimed at maintaining constant energy stores. It is now evident that body weight control is achieved through highly orchestrated interactions between nutrient selection, organoleptic influences, and neuroendocrine responses to diet as well as being influenced by genetic and environmental factors. The concept that circulating signals generated in proportion to body fat stores influence appetite and energy expenditure in a coordinated manner to regulate body weight was proposed almost 50 years ago.

Brown fat is a specialized type of adipose tissue that plays an important role in body temperature regulation. In the newborn brown fat is well developed in the neck and interscapular region. It has a limited distribution in childhood, and occurs only to a small degree in adult humans, while it is present in significant amounts in rodents and hibernating animals. The brown color is derived from a rich vascular network and abundant mitochondria and lysosomes. The individual multilocular adipocytes are frothy appearing cells due to the fact that the lipid, which does not coalesce as readily as in white fat cells and is normally stored in multiple small droplets, has been leached out during tissue 6 ADIPOSE TISSUE (A) (A) (B) Figure 6 (A) Human subcutaneous white adipose tissue with Masson trichrome staining (10Â; bar = 100 mm).

This was formulated as the ‘lipostatic theory’ assuming that as adipose tissue mass enlarges, a factor that acts as a sensing 9 hormone or ‘lipostat’ in a negative feedback control from adipose tissue to hypothalamic receptors informs the brain about the abundance of body fat, thereby allowing feeding behavior, metabolism, and endocrine physiology to be coupled to the nutritional state of the organism. The existing body of evidence gathered in the last decades through targeted expression or knockout of specific genes involved in different steps of the pathways controlling food intake, body weight, adiposity, or fat distribution has clearly contributed to unraveling the underlying mechanisms of energy homeostasis.

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