Download PDF by Nancy G. Leveson: Engineering a safer world : systems thinking applied to

By Nancy G. Leveson

Engineering has skilled a technological revolution, however the simple engineering recommendations utilized in protection and reliability engineering, created in a less complicated, analog global, have replaced little or no through the years. during this groundbreaking publication, Nancy Leveson proposes a brand new method of defense -- extra suited for trendy complicated, sociotechnical, software-intensive global -- according to sleek structures pondering and structures idea. Revisiting and updating rules pioneered through Fifties aerospace engineers of their procedure protection proposal, and checking out her new version generally on real-world examples, Leveson has created a brand new method of safeguard that's better, less costly, and more uncomplicated to take advantage of than present techniques.

Arguing that conventional types of causality are insufficient, Leveson provides a brand new, prolonged version of causation (Systems-Theoretic coincidence version and techniques, or STAMP), then then indicates how the recent version can be utilized to create options for process security engineering, together with coincidence research, probability research, procedure layout, defense in operations, and administration of safety-critical structures. She applies the recent options to real-world occasions together with the friendly-fire lack of a U.S. Blackhawk helicopter within the first Gulf battle; the Vioxx bear in mind; the U.S. army SUBSAFE software; and the bacterial infection of a public water offer in a Canadian city. Leveson's process is proper even past security engineering, providing recommendations for "reengineering" any huge sociotechnical method to enhance safeguard and deal with risk.

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152, p. 121] The selection of the failure of the foundation, jacket, or deck as the initiating event is arbitrary, as we have seen, and eliminates from consideration prior events leading to them such as manufacturing or construction problems. The failure of the foundation, for example, might be related to the use of inferior construction materials, which in turn might be related to budget deficiencies or lack of government oversight. In addition, there does not seem to be any reason for assuming that initiating failures are mutually exclusive and that only one starts the accident, except perhaps again to simplify the mathematics.

Examples abound of operators ignoring prescribed procedures in order to prevent an accident [115, 155]. At the same time, accidents have resulted precisely because the operators did follow the predetermined instructions provided to them in their training, such as at Three Mile Island [115]. ” In the successful case (deviating from specified procedures averts an accident), their behavior is unreliable but safe. It satisfies the behavioral safety constraints for the system, but not individual reliability requirements with respect to following specified procedures.

Keeping the aircraft separated adequately to assure acceptable risk may decrease system throughput. There are always multiple goals and constraints for any system—the challenge in engineering design and risk management is to identify and analyze the conflicts, to make appropriate tradeoffs among the conflicting requirements and constraints, and to find ways to increase system safety without decreasing system reliability. Safety versus Reliability at the Organizational Level So far the discussion has focused on safety versus reliability at the physical level.

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