Phillip Manning's Essential Chemistry: Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds PDF

By Phillip Manning

Our global relies on chemistry. each item we stumble upon in our day-by-day lives is a manufactured from a chemical response, normal or man-made. This interesting ebook is going backstage of day by day chemistry and digs deeply into the hearts of the atoms that govern chemical techniques. It explores the reactions among atoms and indicates how the features of the reacting atoms make sure the kind of molecules produced. The e-book additionally probes the interesting chemistry of straightforward elements resembling salt and water. In transparent language, it indicates how the interactions among the 2 molecules are the most important to existence on the earth and the way these interactions are predestined via the atoms that make up the molecules.

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Example text

Carbon’s most common form has six electrons. To build this atom, the first two electrons go in the 1s orbital, the second pair in the 2s orbital. The fifth electron must go the 2p orbital. But in which of the three p orbitals should the sixth electron go? In the orbital already occupied by the fifth electron or in one of the unoccupied orbitals. The last rule needed to generate electron configurations for all the atoms in the periodic table came from a German scientist named Friedrich Hund. Hund’s rule can be expressed in several ways.

A glance at the periodic table (which will be covered in detail in Chapter 5) shows a list of elements with numbers that are not as neat as those for carbon. 845. Could an atom have a fractional proton or neutron? Of course not. An element must have a fixed number of protons. That is what defines it as an element. However, the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an element can vary. Carbon, for instance, has two prominent forms. Carbon 12 has 6 protons and 6 neutrons whereas carbon 14 has 6 protons and 8 neutrons.

The angular momentum quantum number is associated, not too surprisingly, with the angular momentum of an electron in an elliptical orbit. The magnetic quantum number is related to the behavior of electrons in a magnetic field. Spin can be visualized as an electron spinning on its own axis. After the wave theory supplanted the Bohr atom as a more accurate description of the subatomic world, the meaning of quantum numbers became less certain. Can a wave really spin on its own axis? The answer is no.

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