By Andreas N. Angelakis, Larry W. Mays, Demetris Koutsoyiannis
Evolution of Water provide throughout the Millennia provides the most important achievements within the clinical fields of water provide applied sciences and administration through the millennia. It presents beneficial insights into old water provide applied sciences with their obvious features of sturdiness, adaptability to the surroundings, and sustainability. A comparability of the water technological advancements in numerous civilizations is undertaken. those applied sciences are the underpinning of recent achievements in water engineering and administration practices. it's the most sensible facts that "the prior is the most important for the future." speedy technological development within the 20th century created a fail to remember for prior water applied sciences that have been thought of to be a long way in the back of the current ones. There are loads of unresolved difficulties concerning the administration rules, reminiscent of the decentralization of the procedures, the sturdiness of the water tasks, the associated fee effectiveness, and sustainability concerns resembling security from floods and droughts. within the constructing global, such difficulties have been intensified to an exceptional measure. in addition, new difficulties have arisen resembling the infection of floor and groundwater. evidently, intensification of unresolved difficulties led societies to revisit the previous and to reinvestigate the profitable earlier achievements. To their shock, those that tried this retrospect, according to archaeological, historic, and technical proof have been inspired by means of issues: the similarity of ideas with current ones and the complicated point of water engineering and administration practices.
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Evolution of Water offer in the course of the Millennia provides the foremost achievements within the medical fields of water provide applied sciences and administration during the millennia. It presents important insights into historical water provide applied sciences with their obvious features of sturdiness, adaptability to the surroundings, and sustainability.
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Angelakis) Hippocrates (460−377 BC), the Greek physician, wrote the first work on public hygiene (Air, Water, and Places) in which he noted that water varied in quality (taste and weight) and that it could be purified. His purification process, using what was later called “Hippocrates Sleeve”, was to use a cloth bag through which he poured the water after it was boiled to trap sediments that caused bad taste and smell. This device was used for his patients. 6 HELLENISTIC GREEK PERIOD Later, during the Hellenistic period [323 BC (death of Alexander the Great) – 146 BC (conquest of Greece by the Roman Empire)], further developments were made by the Greeks in hydraulics, such as the construction and operation of aqueducts, cisterns, wells, harbours, water supply systems, baths, toilets, and sewerage and drainage systems.
They also utilised the rainwater which was collected from the roofs of the houses and stored in cisterns, usually underground. 13. This water was mostly used for cleaning the house if running water was available for human consumption. 12 Cylindrical terracotta rings, for coating the walls of a Roman well (Sklivaniotis & Angelakis, 2006) During the Classic period and mostly during the Roman period, water was extensively used for human personal hygiene. Baths were both private and public. Public baths were more than places for hygiene.
Lead was used as a sealing medium in clay pipes of larger diameters as well as to form pipes of small diameters. As far as we know, ancient civilizations ignored the epidemiology of lead, but the problems arising from lead use would be the same as they are today. For the construction of lead pipes specialised workshops were set up. Their remains have been uncovered in a number of excavations. 7 ROMAN PERIOD Springs were the most common sources of water for the Romans. Water sources included not only springs, percolation wells, and weirs on streams, but also reservoirs that were developed by building dams which is discussed further in Chapter 12.