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By Kenneth R. Hammond (auth.), Jeryl L. Mumpower, Ortwin Renn, Lawrence D. Phillips, V. R. R. Uppuluri (eds.)

This quantity is an outgrowth of a NATO complex examine Workshop on "Expert Judgment and specialist Systems," held in Porto, Portugal, August 1986. help for the Workshop used to be supplied by way of the NATO department of clinical Affairs, the U.S. military study Institute, and the U.S. nationwide technological know-how starting place. The Workshop introduced jointly researchers from the fields of psychology, selection research, and synthetic intelligence. the needs have been to evaluate similarities, variations, and complementarities one of the 3 ways to the learn of specialist judgment; to judge their relative strengths and weaknesses; and to suggest ecocnomic linkages among them. all the papers within the current quantity is directed towards a number of of these ambitions. we want to show our appreciation and because of the next individuals for his or her help and information: John Adams, Vincent T. Covello, Luis da Cunha, Claire Jeseo, B. Michael Kantrowitz, Margaret Lally, Judith Orasanu, R. M. Rodrigues, and Sandor P. Schuman.

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Explanation Equal importance. ". S! One Ask? A typical question to ask in order to fill in the entries in a matrix of comparisons is: Consider two properties i on the left side of the matrix and another j on the top; which of the two has the property under discussion more and how strongly more (using the scale values 1 to 9). This gives us aij (or aji)' The reciprocal value is then automatically entered for aji (or aij) . The question asked in making the pairwise comparison can influence the judgments provided and hence also the priorities.

The sum of the eigenvalues of a matrix is equal to its trace, and in this case the trace of A is equal to n. Thus n is an eigenval ue of A and we have a nontrivial solution. , is not decomposable into blocks of the form A In the general case we cannot give the precise values of wi/Wj but only estimates of them. Our considerations later will show that we plan to use the sol ution for Aw = Amaxw as an estimate of this ratio. 39 Orders of Homogeneity One of the axioms of the AHP is that the objects being compared should be homogeneous.

Values , The val ues in a technical system are in most cases easy to measure: price, performance or energy consumption. This is different in the medical context. There is no immediate measurement of "health" or "feeling comfortable". On the other hand, there is al so no need for a numerical measure of these values. 25 CONCLUSIONS From the viewpoint of applications the present situation is characterized by the duality of Expert systems on the one side and traditional programs and models on the other side.

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