By Dr. A. L. Val, Dr. V. M. F. de Almeida-Val (auth.)
The Amazon is a big piece of "amphibian" land that is the results of complicated geological and evolutionary tactics. The variety of dwelling beings in this kind of land is hard to estimate. The interactions among those organ isms and the surroundings are interesting yet slightly understood. those beneficial properties lured us to the Amazon in 1981. although, quickly after, we discovered that the size of those interactions have been overwhelming. This ebook is designed to study features of the body structure and biochemistry of fishes of the Amazon. the outline of the pulsative nature of our environment and the designated gains of the ichthyofauna of the Amazon have been critical to the most target. however, any entire view is proscribed by means of the value of the intraspecific variability coupled with the advanced fluctuations of our surroundings. hence, now we have positioned an emphasis on breathing body structure and biochemistry. The reference record was once made as entire as attainable, fairly concerning detailed courses no longer available. we are hoping that this booklet comes in handy for comparative physiologists, tropical biologists, and the folks drawn to interactions among organ isms and their surroundings. we're thankful to many of us who contributed to the making of this e-book. Our preliminary rules have been stimulated via Drs. Arno Schwantes, Maria Lufza Schwantes, Jose Tundisi, Anna Emflia Vazzoler, and Naercio Menezes.
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Extra info for Fishes of the Amazon and Their Environment: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects
2). In addition, fruits and seeds form the foundation of the trophic chain in the "black" water systems (Santos et al. 1991). Among the fruit and seed eaters are many economically important species like those belonging to the genera Colossoma, Mylossoma, Myleus, Brycon, Osteoglossum, some members of the groups Anostomidae, Bryconinae, Cichlidae, Serrasalmidae (piranhas), and many catfishes of the families Doradidae, Auchenipteridae, and Pimelodidae (Aragao 1981; Junk 1984b; Goulding 1985; Araujo-Lima et al.
However, they include animals with quite different shapes (Fig. 2) such as the freshwater dogfish (Raphiodontinae), the pencil fish (Lebiasinidae), and the piranhas (Serrasalmidae). 2). Their distinctions are defined based mainly on trophic specializations and feeding structures (Fink and Fink 1979; Carvalho 1981; Santos 1982; Almeida 1984; Goulding 1985; Santos and Jegu 1989). This type of specialization, based on habitat partitioning, is poorly understood (Fink and Fink 1979). It is believed that this is the main reason that many more Characiformes will be discovered and described as other habitats are accessed, particularly the headwaters of the main rivers.
So, in summary, what, when, and how much is eaten by most fishes of the Amazon are mainly regulated by water level oscillations. 3 Migratory Cycles Migration, as defined by Northcote (1984), is a periodic movement of a significant fraction of the population which results in an alternation of their habitats. In fact, this concept adds some restrictions to Baker's (1978) 43 definition, which defined migration as "the act of moving from one spatial unit to another". In other words, fish migration, according Northcote's concept, does not include irregular (non periodic) movements or movements of small groups of fish, which actually appears to more appropriately describe the general movements of fishes of the Amazon.