By C. W. Blackburn, Clive de W. Blackburn, Peter McClure, P. J. Mcclure
Covers modeling pathogen habit and accomplishing a danger review because the crucial starting place for potent foodstuff protection administration. makes a speciality of sturdy administration perform in key phases within the provide chain, beginning with farm construction. additionally covers protection for shoppers and foodstuff handlers within the retail and catering sectors.
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Extra info for Foodborne Pathogens - Hazards, Risk Analysis and Control
Most commercially available enzyme immunoassays use an antibody sandwich method in order initially to capture and then to detect specific microbial cells or toxins. The kits are supplied with two types of antibody: capture antibody and conjugated antibody. The capture antibody is attached to a solid support surface such as a microtitre plate well. An enriched food sample can be added to the well and the antigens from any target cells present will bind to the antibodies. The well is washed out, removing food debris and unbound microorganisms.
A stain is then applied to the filter to fluorescently mark metabolically active microbial cells. After staining, the membrane is then transferred to a Chemscan RDI instrument, which scans the whole membrane with a laser, counting fluorescing cells. The complete procedure takes around 90 minutes to perform and can detect single cells in the filtered sample. The Chemscan RDI solid phase cytometry system is an extremely powerful tool for rapidly counting low levels of organisms. It is ideally suited to the analysis of waters or other clear filterable fluids, and specific labelling techniques could be used to detect particular organisms of interest.
There are currently four instruments commercially available for the detection of organisms by electrical measurement. The Malthus System (IDG, Bury, UK) based on the work of Richards et al. (1978) monitors conductance changes occurring in growth media as does the Rabit System (Don Whitley Scientific, Yorkshire, UK), whilst the Bactometer (bioMeriéux, Basingstoke, UK), and the Batrac (SyLab, Purkersdorf, Austria) (Bankes, 1991) can monitor both conductance and capacitance signals. All of the instruments have similar basic components: (a) an incubator system to hold samples at a constant temperature during the test; (b) a monitoring unit that measures the conductance and/or capacitance of every cell at regular frequent intervals (usually every 6 minutes); and (c) a computer-based data handling system that presents the results in usable format.