By Professor Dr. Leonid Brekhovskikh, Professor Dr. Yury Lysanov (auth.)
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Extra resources for Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics
4) is of great importance. In many cases, especially at sufficiently large distances from the source, the sound wave can be represented as a plane wave, or as a superposition of plane waves. This is obvious, for instance, for a spherical wave at large distances where the wave front curvature may be disregarded. 2 Refraction of Sound Rays Consider first a horizontally stratified ocean where sound velocity only depends upon the depth [e = e(z)], and the surface and bottom of the ocean are horizontal planes.
37. The wide maximum observed at a frequency about 60 Hz is due to ship traffic noise. 2. Ray Theory of the Sound Field in the Ocean Ray theory, in spite of its approximate nature, is a very effective method for the study of sound propagation at sufficiently high frequencies in inhomogeneous media such as the ocean. In this chapter we derive the basic equations of ray acoustics and give their solutions for a stratified ocean. In later chapters the ray approach is applied to waveguide sound propagation, reflection of sound from the sea suface, and some other problems.
1, C ~ Cl, m -+ 11m, and n -+ lin. Thus, the energy transparency of the boundary does not depend on the supporting medium of the incident wave. 54 3. Reflection of Sound from the Surface and Bottom of the Ocean. Plane Waves Let us now consider the oblique incidence of the sound wave on the water surface from air. e. 0 > 12°43'. 7) where k is the wave number in air. 8) Thus, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure decreases exponentially with depth. In Fig. 4 the quantity J is shown as a function of the angle of incidence 0 for various frequencies.