By Y.G. Paithankar, S.R. Bhide
Strength method is a hugely advanced dynamic entity. One malfunction or a slipshod set relay can jeopardize the full grid. strength procedure security as a topic deals all of the parts of intrigue, drama, and suspense whereas dealing with fault stipulations in actual existence.
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Additional info for Fundamentals of Power System Protection
Thus, over-current relaying is the most natural principle of relaying. However, fault current magnitude is a function of type of fault and the source impedance. The source impedance, which depends upon the number of generating units that are in service at a given time, keeps changing from time to time. Therefore, the reach as well as the operating time of over-current relaying keep changing from fault to fault, and time to time. This has led relay engineers to think of other principles of protection.
Consider that we have only over-current relays a t our disposal. Will it be possible to implement the desired zones using simple over-current relays? In order to answer this question, let us focus on OC relays a t bus C. Note that OC relays operate on the magnitude of fault current and cannot sense the direction of the fault. Consider fault F,. As per the desired zones, only CBs 4 and 5 should trip. i i j t ? $ -- . ocations. Thus, the desired zones are not generated. 3 with respect to faults Fa and F,.
14 Variation of fault current against fault location for IDMT relays under maximum fault condition. 15 for a simple system consisting of two buses. The same principle can be extended to an n bus system. In fact, a computer algorithm can be developed to automate this task in case of a large system. Source Bus Three-phase line A cB-1~. m- Zs Bus B - Bus C IR B r E Load / Load ; I IL,B I /LA 0 b 4 C,min, B 4 wx. 1 Choice Beiween IDMT and DTOC Relays It can be seen that IDMT relays offer significant improvement in fault clearing times over DTOC relays.