By Optical Society Of America, Michael Bass
In quantity II,readers will locate insurance of: Elements,from the normal to extra lately built elements corresponding to integrated,micro,binary,gradient index,fiber,and x-ray optics; Instruments,from cameras to optical scanners to FLIR systemsl Measurements,including either the idea and the technique; Optical and actual houses of fabric.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Optics, Vol. 2: Devices, Measurements, and Properties, Second Edition
Consider a stop placed at the front focal plane of a lens. The image is located at infinity and the principal ray exits the lens parallel to the optical axis. This feature is often used in metrology since the measurement error is reduced when compared to conventional lens systems because the centroid of the blur remains at the same height from the optical axis even as the focus is varied. 5 F -NUMBER AND NUMERICAL APERTURE The focal ratio or F-number (FN) of a lens is defined as the effective focal length divided by the entrance pupil diameter Dep .
Since the negative lens makes the object appear closer to the objective lens, the resultant image moves beyond the focal point, thereby making the bfl greater than the efl. An extreme form of the reverse telephoto lens is the fish-eye or sky lens. Such lenses have a total field of view of 180Њ or more. The image formed by these lenses has very large barrel distortion. Recalling that the image height for a distortionless lens on a flat image surface is f tan θ , the reverse telephoto lens has mapping relationships such as fθ and f sin θ .
Should the objective have a focal length of 10 mm, the total magnifying power of the microscope is 16ϫ times 10ϫ, or 160ϫ. 8 FIELD AND RELAY LENSES Field lenses are placed at (or near) an image location for the purpose of optically relocating the pupil or to increase the field of view of the optical system. For example, a field lens may be used at the image plane of an astronomical telescope such that the field lens images the objective lens onto the eyepiece. In general, the field lens does not contribute to the aberrations of the system except for distortion and field curvature.