By Dai Tracy; Kyriakakis, Chris; Kuo, C.-C. Jay Yang
This worthwhile monograph addresses the categorical wishes of audio-engineering scholars and researchers who're both studying in regards to the subject or utilizing it as a reference publication on multichannel audio compression. This publication covers quite a lot of wisdom on perceptual audio coding, from simple electronic sign processing and information compression options to complicated audio coding criteria and innovate coding instruments. it's the purely ebook on the market that exclusively makes a speciality of the foundations of top of the range audio codec layout for multichannel sound resources. This publication contains 3 components. the 1st half covers the elemental issues on audio compression, reminiscent of quantization, entropy coding, psychoacoustic version, and sound caliber overview. the second one a part of the ebook highlights the present such a lot usual low-bit-rate high-performance audio coding standards—MPEG-4 audio. extra space is given to the audio criteria which are in a position to helping multichannel indications, that's, MPEG boost audio coding (AAC), together with the unique MPEG-2 AAC know-how, extra MPEG-4 toolsets, and the newest aacPlus general. The 3rd a part of this ebook introduces a number of innovate multichannel audio coding instruments, that have been tested to additional enhance the coding functionality and extend the to be had functionalities of MPEG AAC, and is more desirable for graduate scholars and researchers within the complicated point.
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Additional resources for High-Fidelity Multichannel Audio Coding
The solution to these problems was found shortly after that by moving two eﬀects channels reproduced over an array of loudspeakers along the sides of the theater to create a more diﬀuse sound field. In the 1960s, home Hi-Fi systems began to spread, but they took a step back by using initially one and eventually two channels. This was due to the limitation of the delivery medium, the LP record, that was only capable of encoding two channels on its groove walls. The first attempt at consumer surround sound came in the early 1970s with Quad [113, 112].
1. Example (midtread quantizer). 4, where the input range is divided into three parts. They are quantized in values of 01, 00 (or 10), and 11, respectively. At the decoder end, the dequantizer reconstructs codes 01, 00 (or 10), and 11 to 2/3, 0, and −2/3, respectively. 2. Quantization errors can be classified into two types: the round-oﬀ error and the clipping (or the overload) error. The round-oﬀ error occurs when the input signal with amplitudes within an interval is mapped into a single codeword.
The partition is continuously modified until an optimal codebook is obtained. This iteration process uses a set of training vectors which are representative of the actual vectors that the vector quantizer will work on. The first important component in vector quantizer design is to select an initial codebook. If the initial codebook is properly chosen, the number of iterations for codebook refinement can be greatly reduced. A variety of techniques that generate initial codebook have been developed.