By Milton J. Rosen
This booklet provides, in nonmathematical type, the foundations underlying using surfactants in commercial items and procedures, how those ideas are used to pick surfactants to be used in various commercial purposes, and tables of surfactants truly utilized in those functions. one of the program parts coated are: agrochemicals, development, emulsion polymerization, firefighting foams, commercial water remedy, steel cleansing and steel operating, oil box fracturing, plastics, pulp and paper, and textiles.
There are various tables of floor homes in aqueous resolution of business surfactants, proper to their use, together with floor stress, interfacial pressure vs. mineral oil, effectiveness and potency of adsorption on the air/water interface, area/molecule on the air/water interface, dynamic floor pressure at 0.1% focus, touch angles of 0.1% recommendations on Parafilm M, concentrations to provide 25-sec Draves cotton skein wetting, Ross-Miles foaming heights, serious micelle concentrations, krafft issues of anionic surfactants, cloud issues of nonionic surfactants, and molecular interplay (b) parameters for a few advertisement surfactant combinations.
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Extra resources for Industrial utilization of surfactants : principles and practice
Langmuir-typeadsorption isotherm, illustrating efficiency and effectiveness of adsorption on a solid substrate. 6. Contact angle of surfactant solution on smooth, planar, nonporous solid, illustrating relationship of various interfacial tensions. 5. The lowest contact angles are given by nonionic surfactants. Branched hydrophobes appear to give lower contact angles than isomeric linear ones. 2, shown previously. Here, data on the change in the contact angle and the surface tension of the surfactant solution with change in the surfactant concentration in the solution phase permit calculation of the surfactant concentration at the solid/liquid interface.
6 lists the weight concentrations of various commercial surfactants required to obtain a 25-sec wetting time in this test. The lowest concentrations are with surfactants that have branched, rather than isomeric, linear hydrophobes. A decrease in the polarity, or ionic nature, of the hydrophilic group, provided that the surfactant remains completely in solution in the aqueous medium, also decreases the concentration required for 25-sec wetting. A correlation has been found between Draves cotton skein wetting time and dynamic surface tension at 1 sec surface age (4).
J. Rosen and M. Dahanayake 36 Adsorption data obtained at constant temperature in this fashion are usually plotted as a function of the equilibrium concentration of surfactant in the solution phase, yielding an adsorption isotherm. Adsorption isotherms of surfactants on solids, especially hydrophobic ones, are often of the Langmuir type (Fig. 5). 3. , the ejficiency of adsorption of the surfactant, can also be read directly from the adsorption isotherm. The amount of reduction of the interfacial tension, IT, at the solid/liquid interface caused by adsorption there of the surfactant up to the critical micelle concentration (cmc) can be determined from the plot of r vs.