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By M. Monirul Qader Mirza, Ahsan Uddin Ahmed, Q.K. Ahmad

Inter-basin water transfers are complicated human interventions on typical structures that could have profound opposed in addition to worthwhile social, fiscal and environmental implications. India’s plan to interlink its rivers (ILR) and to move water may well, in accordance with one set of perspectives, generate optimistic merits via stronger and increased irrigation and should additionally give a contribution to flood and drought risks mitigation for India, even if the magnitudes are controversial. notwithstanding, there are opposing perspectives, within the context of India itself, that the interlinking plan is economically prohibitive, fraught with uncertainties, and has strength for disastrous and irreversible hostile after-effects. Water deficit might be decreased via more desirable water administration with out huge scale engineering interventions. additionally some of the rivers concerned, quite within the Himalayan part, are overseas and, for this reason, the scheme has significant implications for different riparians. certainly, the deliberate move of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers will adversely impression Bangladesh socially, economically and environmentally---unless preparations are made to take care of old flows, that's not likely to be possible. Any multipurpose garage reservoirs in upstream international locations, similar to Nepal and Bhutan, might facilitate power iteration and different advantages yet also will reason opposed environmental and social affects to those nations. accordingly, the ILR plan will extra complicate current water sharing and administration difficulties among India and different co-basin nations. Strengthening and enlargement of cooperative efforts one of the co-basin international locations for water assets improvement and sharing can generate financial advantages for the folk of those nations and in addition foster co-riparian relationships.

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The rising water table has also tainted drinking water supplies. Approximately 15 per cent of surface water supplies in the Aral Sea Basin are polluted, severely affecting the human health and as well as ecological functions of many reservoirs (UNEP, 2006). Rampant anemia and high infant mortality rates are abound. The receding Aral Sea leaves behind chemical pesticides and natural salts which are blown into noxious dust storms, seriously affecting the health of the local people. Pollution puts further pressure on communities already stressed by water shortages and the loss of large areas of valuable ecosystems (UNEP, 2006).

Following the pursuits of the then super powers, Chile planned to divert water from other basins to replenish the Maipo River in the 1980s, in a bid to compensate for the increase in water use by the capital, Santiago. China, as well, has already implemented several large IBT projects. For example, it diverted roughly 10 BCM (billion cubic meters) from the Chang into the Huai basin, and 8 BCM from the lower Huang into the Hai and Huai in 1980 (Nickum, 1997). Recently, in a bid to continue agricultural development in the North China Plain and to provide water in the rapidly growing capital, the city of Beijing decided to implement the proposed middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project.

This treaty demonstrates the desire from both countries for the project to provide mutual net benefits, to enter into a long term collaborative relationship and to reduce conflicts (Towfique, 2002). Therefore, due to increase openness in collaboration and support from legislation, previous mistrust between the two countries has markedly decreased, thereby strengthening political, legal and institutional support and infrastructure. 3 Europe The Tagus-Segura Transfer is an inter-basin transfer in Spain that started in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

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