By Hongwen Ren
Presents readers with the elemental technological know-how, expertise, and purposes for all sorts of adaptive lens
An adaptive lens is a lens whose form has been replaced to another focal size through an exterior stimulus akin to strain, electrical box, magnetic box, or temperature. Introduction to Adaptive Lenses is the 1st publication ever to deal with all the basic operation rules, gadget features, and power purposes of varied forms of adaptive lenses.
This entire booklet covers easy fabric homes, equipment buildings and function, photo processing and zooming, optical communications, and biomedical imaging. Readers will locate homework difficulties and ideas incorporated on the finish of every chapter?and in response to the defined machine buildings, they are going to have the information to manufacture adaptive lenses for sensible functions or improve new adaptive units or recommendations for complex investigation.
Introduction to Adaptive Lenses comprises chapters on:
Elastomeric membrane lenses
Liquid crystal lenses
This is a crucial reference for optical engineers, study scientists, graduate scholars, and undergraduate seniors.
Chapter 1 Optical Lens (pages 1–22):
Chapter 2 Elastomeric Membrane Lens (pages 23–79):
Chapter three Electrowetting Lens (pages 80–106):
Chapter four Dielectrophoretic Lens (pages 107–158):
Chapter five different Adaptive Liquid Lenses (pages 159–188):
Chapter 6 Liquid Crystal Lens (pages 189–269):
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Additional resources for Introduction to Adaptive Lenses
Two piezoelectric ﬁlms are ﬁxed on a wall surface with a space. 29. A shaft is placed close to the two ﬁlms. The shaft is placed on rollers. 30a). 30b). 30c). When the right ﬁlm is bent to a certain level before separating from the shaft, the left ﬁlm expands. 30d). 30e). 30f). The right and left ﬁlms can work alternatively to shift the shaft to the left. If the two ﬁlms are controlled to bend to the right, then the shaft would move to the right direction. The shaft of a piezoelectric actuator can have a long trip (up to 100 mm) with a high pushing force.
To obtain a uniform membrane, spin-coating is commonly practiced. Depending on the spinning speed, the thickness of the coated layer can be controlled. Then the mixture experiences a thermal induced polymerization. The speed of the polymerization cross-linking is dependent on the curing temperature. At room temperature, complete polymerization requires at least 48 hours. But at ∼100◦ C, complete polymerization only takes ∼45 minutes, and this process is further shortened to ∼10 minutes if the curing temperature is raised to 150◦ C.
When the membrane is deformed continuously, the radius of the membrane curvature (Rv ) has a tendency to decrease. Therfore, the focal length of the lens has a tendency to decrease. Usually the lens resolution increases as the ﬂuidic pressure increases until it reaches a maximal value. Continuing to increase the pressure will severely deform the membrane and cause a large aberration. Therefore, the resolution will decrease. The actuation system using syringe is still manually operated, although the lens cell itself has no moving parts.