By Márton Veress
With a spotlight on karren formation in excessive mountains, and particularly within the ecu Alps, this article summarizes the medical result of systematic observations made in the course of box journeys, in addition to the translation, utilizing smooth analytical equipment, of the information gathered. Márton Veress, who has been operating in numerous forms of karren landscapes for greater than fifteen years, offers the stipulations and tactics of excessive mountain karren formation in addition to the houses of karren good points. The booklet analyzes karren phenomena, their improvement, and their formation lower than various environmental conditions.
Introductory chapters offer an outline of karren formations, as well as charting the heritage of study into karst environments at excessive altitude. the writer then presents info of the sampling websites and the localities he has studied, and experimental strategies undertaken. After overlaying the main points of the age and price of karren shape improvement, Veress offers an in-depth clarification of the overall features of excessive mountain karren formations. The textual content then presents an summary of morphogenetic forms of karren formations in addition to karren assemblages, and an evidence of karren belts on slopes, emphasizing the main reconstruction position they play in slope improvement. the ultimate chapters describe coalescing varieties and their foundation, supply the reader an in depth description of karren cells and their attribute gains, and study the connection among varied karren formations.
Key issues: karst formation - karst assemblages - coalescence - pollution - soil erosion - zonation - excessive mountains
Professor Márton Veress is Head of the Institute of Geography and Environmental Sciences, the college of West Hungary, Szombathely. he's a member of the Board of the Hungarian Karst and Cave study organization, a member of the Board of the Hungarian Geographical organization, and Secretary of the Gemorphological sub-Board of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
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Extra info for Karst Environments: Karren Formation in High Mountains
The upper limit of pine forest moved lower as deforestation cut up the pine forest into pine groves. The herbaceous plants that replaced pines could not preserve the soil. Therefore, bare spots of variable sizes formed on gentler slopes. Probably, karren formation was modified (for instance, intensified by organic acids) under the soil too. The lower limit of high mountain karren formation cannot be separated from the upper limit of karren formation in mountains of medium height. The karren formation does not show great variation between the lower regions of high mountains and the upper regions of mountains of medium height neither in elevation nor in character.
That local turbulence develops under snow is proven by the fact that trittkarren occur on ridges between rinnenkarren as mentioned. Furthermore, there are no rillenkarren on most trittkarren and therefore the turbulent sheet water cannot be caused by rain. The sheet water is of meltwater origin. According to Glew and Ford (1980) raindrops must hit sheet water to make it turbulent and promote the development of rillenkarren. We claim that trittkarren can develop if dissolution takes place locally and temporarily, which is possible if sheet water flows under snow.
For example, those forms that are connected to regressional runnels. • Remnant forms are younger than the forms from which they developed, for example, karren natural bridges. Absolute age may be determined in a direct or indirect way. When the rate of the surface solution is measured, it is indirect dating. For direct dating, the rate of growth of the karren form is measured. The methods proposed by Bögli (1961) and Cucchi et al. (1996) are suitable for measuring the rate of surface denudation.