Learning And Memory (Gray Matter) - download pdf or read online

By Andrew Hudmon

From making dialog to strolling and riding, studying and reminiscence are an important facets of our survival.

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In the Learning and Memory: A Historical Perspective days of the first Egyptian and Greek physicians, the prevailing view was that the human mind—in this era, “mind” referred not just to the ability to think or reason, but also to the essence of humanity, or “soul”—resided in the heart, not the brain. Learning and memory—if they were considered at all—were regarded as philosophical or spiritual manifestations, not biological processes. The concept of the brain as the organ of learning and memory began to take root around the turn of the 1st millennium, largely through the observations of physicians such as Hippocrates and Galen.

Iconic memory (visual stimuli) is commonly studied in humans and other primates, although haptic memory (touch) and echoic memory (hearing) are also evaluated. Sensory memory— sometimes referred to as immediate memory—appears to act as a gateway into the short- and long-term stages of memory. Sensory memory can be readily studied by limiting the exposure time of a stimulus—for example, by asking test subjects to recount letters flashed on a screen for only a fraction of a second. , within 1 to 2 seconds) after the presentation of the visual stimulus.

Competent neuroanatomist, also made important contributions to our understanding of the brain’s structure and composition. The next significant theory regarding the existence of multiple functional systems in the brain was provided by the French philosopher Maine de Biran (1766–1824). Maine de Biran considered memory to have three components: representative memory, concerned with recollection of ideas and events; mechanical memory, concerned with the formation of skills and habits; and sensitive memory, concerned primarily with emotions and feelings.

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