Limnology of a Small Malayan River Sungai Gombak by John E. Bishop (auth.) PDF

By John E. Bishop (auth.)

Rivers are famous as significant normal assets, not just as resources of household, business and agricultural water and hydro-electric strength, but in addition for foodstuff creation and more and more for sport and vacationer merchandising. This know-how has ended in elevated research of lotic limnology, relatively with recognize to the improvement of the potentials of river platforms. the fear over deterioration of watercourses because of negative land usage and their use as repositories for man's rejectamenta has motivated study into the elemental dynamics of the river surroundings and its biotic groups. ahead of any evaluate of toxins results may be made, or rational remedial motion prompt, there has to be a valid, unique wisdom of the 'natural' features of neighborhood water­ classes as a reference average. this information may result simply from investigating the total drainage quarter as a unit atmosphere (E vehicles 1956) instead of simply the categorical stipulations within the river itself (cf. SLACK 1955, HYNES 1969). Biotic information for any circulation are of little worth if divorced from attention of the geology, hydrochemistry, land use and nutrient cycles of the watershed that generated them. The learn of enormous rivers, potamobiology within the feel of I LLIES (1955, 1961 a), is a really good region of analysis merging into lenitic ecology in lots of points and can't be thought of here.

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DOUGLAS (1968a) gave figures for a single storm showing 137 mm/24 h at 75 m altitude, 82 mm at 140 m, 67 mm at 220 m, 59 m at 650 m and felt that the maximum distribution of rain in the Gombak catchment was in the foothill region. 01 inches), at the upper catchment (B series) gauges partially compensated for this and corroborated the empirical field observations that rain in this region was generally more frequent but often less intense than in the lowlands. 05 cm, that just came under the definition of a rain-day.

85 Aug. 35 Sept. 60 Aug. 40 Oct. 55 Sept. 95 Nov. 05 Oct. 21. 55 Dec. 70 Nov. 15 Total 51 years 36 years 36 years 56 years 34 years Length of records 20 4066 10 0 10 0 30 20 10 E u c 0 20 0 g 10 a. u C)I 0 "'- a... 20 >- ,:,c. C)I

58 99. 2 UPPER CATCHMENT Depth on area Rain volume m 3 X 10 4 (em) Monthly Cumu- Monthly Cumulative lative Table 13. Depth and total volume of precipitation .... Jl 20 18 16 16 17 20 21 26 26 4066 4065 4067 4062 4064 B13 B16 BI8 B23 1968 Oct. Gauge to 13 19 11 12 17 19 24 18 19 11 13 18 19 20 25 26 11 Dec. Nov. 5 13 16 15 15 11 10 7 8 1969 Jan. 6 4 8 5 4 11 11 12 15 Feb. 13 8 16 13 11 13 15 15 20 Mar. Table 14. Number of rain-days in study period of 426 days 11 6 12 12 13 17 13 17 20 April 13 15 16 15 11 25 23 21 20 May 7 13 15 15 to 16 17 18 20 June 8 8 12 13 12 22 27 20 21 July 12 12 18 15 15 22 22 20 24 Aug.

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