By Andrew F. G. Quest, Daniel M. Raben, Robert M. Bell (auth.), Robert M. Bell, John H. Exton, Stephen M. Prescott (eds.)
Lipids typically were considered as serving services: to shape mobile membranes and to function power shops. over the past twenty years, a brand new function for lipids has taken heart level: lipids can act as signalling molecules. This publication offers with numerous lipids which have been proven to be messengers. best scientists discover all recognized lipid periods other than steroid hormones. Researchers and educators in biochemistry in addition to in molecular and mobile biology will take pleasure in this volume.
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2. Source(s) of Induced Nuclear DAGs Identification of the lipids that serve as the source of the induced nuclear DAGs will provide crucial information required for elucidating the enzymatic mechanisms responsible for the increase in the induced nuclear DAGs, as well as potential physiological roles. , 1991). , 1991), supporting the idea of another phospholipid source. Since it is not possible to selectively radiolabel nuclear phospholipids, potential sources of the induced nuclear DAGs cannot be obtained by analysis of released water-soluble head groups from metabolically labeled cells.
Cysteine-Rich Motifs All PKC isoforms contain at least one cysteine-rich motif. Both cPKCs and nPKCs bind phorbol esters, are activated by DAG, and contain a tandem repeat of two cysteine-rich motifs (Nishizuka, 1992). In PKGy both motifs are required for high-affinity phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) binding in the presence of calcium (Quest and Bell, 1994b). , 1994). , 1994). , 1993). , 1994a). , 1984). , 1994a,b). , 1994b). , 1989a). , 1994), while the results are controversial for vav. , 1994). , 1992; Maruyama and Brenner, 1991).
In some systems, PC appears to be the predominant, if not exclusive, source of induced diglyceride (reviewed in Billah and Anthes, 1990; Cook and Wakelam, 1992; Exton, 1990). As with PI metabolism, it is not entirely clear that the metabolites derived from PC hydrolysis, PA and diglyceride, are used as the immediate precursors for PI or PC resynthesis. There is also compelling evidence implicating PE metabolism as a signal-transducing component in some 20 Chapter 1 systems. For example, phorbol esters have been shown to stimulate PE hydrolysis, possibly via a PLD-type enzyme, in certain cell types (Kiss and Anderson, 1989).