O. Fredholm, A. Jacobsson, Hans J Pasman's Loss Prevention and Safety Promotion in the Process PDF

By O. Fredholm, A. Jacobsson, Hans J Pasman

This ebook comprises the complaints of the tenth foreign Syposium on Loss Prevention and safeguard promoting within the strategy industries. the most subject matters of the convention include;
optimisation of operations in the framework of security, overall healthiness and atmosphere; safeguard, healthiness, atmosphere administration and function signs; danger administration adventure; safeguard, healthiness and setting in layout and amendment of tactics and crops; detrimental substance/materials houses; garage and delivery of harmful items through highway, rail, water and pipeline; the prevention, safeguard and mitigation, and modelling of unintended releases; issues of security and surroundings in particular approach industries; the influence of laws and projects; improvement of method, e.g. of threat review.

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2 CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOCATALYTIC REACTIONS In autocatalytic reactions the observed rate of reaction is found to increase with conversion. An autocatalytic reaction is by definition a reaction in which a product catalyses its own formation. Thus, the term "autocatalytic" refers to a molecular reaction mechanism. The exact mechanism is usually not known for decompositions. The term "autocatalytic" used in this paper stands for the formal description of autocatalysis and is therefore not used in its proper sense.

250 817 4 EXPERIMENTAL The kinetic model was written as spreadsheet (MS-Excel@). g. a scanner) and were imported in bitmap form where they formed a background picture to the Excel graphics showing the simulated curve. By varying the parameters of the simulation the simulated and the measured curves could be superposed. Sloping baselines could also be corrected. As the fitting is made on a visual basis, an error margin of 10 % has to be taken into account. During the study, it became clear that the border value of the apparent activation energy distinguishing between autocatalytic and non autocatalytic reactions was around 200 kJ/mol.

In the case of autocatalytic reactions the reaction rate is strongly influenced by the concentration of the formed product. Extrapolation to lower temperature needs therefore not only an estimation of the heat release rate, but also of conversion at a given temperature. Furthermore, this approach assumes that a DSC measurement is representative for the thermal behaviour of a substance, since the kinetics of decomposition is a physicochemical property of a given compound. Therefore it is not supposed to vary.

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