By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Water Science and Technology Board, Board on Earth Sciences and Resources, Committee on Earth Resources, Committee on Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water i
In a few coalbeds, certainly taking place water strain holds methane--the major component to common gas--fixed to coal surfaces and in the coal. In a coalbed methane (CBM) good, pumping water from the coalbeds lowers this strain, facilitating the discharge of methane from the coal for extraction and use as an power resource. Water pumped from coalbeds in this process--CBM 'produced water'--is controlled via a few mix of remedy, disposal, garage, or use, topic to compliance with federal and country regulations.
CBM produced water administration might be difficult for regulatory firms, CBM good operators, water therapy businesses, coverage makers, landowners, and the general public as a result of adjustments within the caliber and volume of produced water; on hand infrastructure; expenses to regard, shop, and delivery produced water; and states' felony attention of water and produced water. a few states think of produced water as waste, while others ponder it a helpful byproduct of methane creation. hence, even though present applied sciences enable CBM produced water to be taken care of to any wanted water caliber, the vast majority of CBM produced water is almost immediately being disposed of no less than rate instead of placed to useful use.
This publication in particular examines the Powder River, San Juan, Raton, Piceance, and Uinta CBM basins within the states of Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. The conclusions and proposals determine gaps in information and knowledge, capability helpful makes use of of CBM produced water and linked expenditures, and demanding situations within the current regulatory framework.
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Extra info for Management and effects of coalbed methane produced water in the western United States
The major coal-bearing and methane-producing unit is the Cretaceous Fruitland Formation, underlain by the Pictured Cliffs Sandstone. , 2005). 5a). Although the 29 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Management and Effects of Coalbed Methane Produced Water in the United States C O A L B E D M E T H A N E P R O D U C E D WAT E R I N T H E W E S T E R N U . S . 5 (a) The San Juan Basin of northeastern New Mexico and southwestern Colorado. The green, purple-brown, and gray shading indicates coal of bituminous through subbituminous grade.
However, CBM exploration has targeted coalbeds in a sandstone member within the Mancos Shale and coalbeds in the Mesaverde Group. The sandstone in the Mancos shale was deposited in a fluvial-deltaic environment. The coalbeds in the Mesaverde Group consist of coal interbedded with sandstone and a combination of shale and siltstone. As with the Piceance Basin, water quality associated with the Uinta Basin CBM can be very saline, and salinity of produced water may be as much as that of seawater. 32 Copyright © National Academy of Sciences.
Other radioactive isotopes that may be used to “date” the age of water include krypton, argon, chlorine, and iodine. Because the rates of radioactive decay are known, these isotopes behave as natural clocks, allowing hydrogeologists to measure directly how long the water has been in aquifers, at least to the order-of-magnitude scale, when these isotopes are present in the water. Details on the methodology of the approaches can be found in Clark and Fritz (1997) and Kazemi et al. (2006). , 2005).