New PDF release: Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the

By Harold J. Cook

During this wide-ranging and stimulating e-book, a number one authority at the background of drugs and technological know-how provides convincing proof that Dutch commerce—not religion—inspired the increase of technology within the 16th and 17th centuries. Harold J. prepare dinner scrutinizes a wealth of historic records on the subject of the learn of medication and typical background within the Netherlands and somewhere else in Europe, Brazil, South Africa, and Asia in this period, and his conclusions are clean and fascinating. He uncovers direct hyperlinks among the increase of exchange and trade within the Dutch Empire and the flourishing of clinical investigation.Cook argues that accomplishing trade replaced the deliberating Dutch electorate, resulting in a brand new emphasis on such values as objectivity, accumulation, and outline. The choice for actual details that followed the increase of trade additionally laid the foundation for the increase of technology globally, at any place the Dutch engaged in alternate. medication and typical historical past have been basic facets of this new technology, as mirrored within the improvement of gardens for either excitement and botanical examine, anatomical theaters, interest cupboards, and richly illustrated books approximately nature. Sweeping in scope and unique in its insights, this publication revises earlier understandings of the heritage of technological know-how and ideas.

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Extra resources for Matters of Exchange: Commerce, Medicine, and Science in the Dutch Golden Age

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The Spaniard Elio Antonio de Lebrija (or Nebrija), who had become a committed humanist during his peregrinations in northern Italy, developed an important commentary based on Ruelle’s edition, adding an alphabetical lexicon of about two thousand Spanish terms for the names that occurred in Dioscorides’ text. By the middle of the sixteenth century, editions and commentaries on Dioscorides by Pietro Andrea Gregorio Mattioli, who spent much of his working life in the region around Trent in the Italian Alps, were the most important, although rival experts continued to disagree vociferously about the details of his identifications.

Barbaro used circles, squares, and triangles while playing with the problem of squaring the circle and the use of the ‘‘magic number’’ found in Vitruvius. Naturally, the wonderfully impressive 28 Worldly Goods and the Transformations of Objectivity layout of the garden demonstrated the exquisite good taste of the rulers of the Serene Republic. But it was not especially practical for teaching. The most valuable specimens disappeared, necessitating the removal of the rampart around 1552 in favor of a more traditional brick wall, while the very elaborate beds must have broken up any simple ordering scheme for the plants, making it harder for the students to memorize their simples.

Placing a high value on what can be known about the world objectively arose, then, from the same movements that gave rise to the revolution in consumption of the Renaissance. Certain ways of life encouraged people to pay attention to the things that could be known through the bodily senses. This tasteful objectivity began with the descriptive facts, the credibility of which was guar- 40 Worldly Goods and the Transformations of Objectivity anteed by personal credit, the sharing of information, and collective decisionmaking based on plain and precise descriptive language.

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