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Extra info for Medical statistics. A textbook for the health sciences
Thus many people who earn more than the earnings of 50% (the median) of the population will still feel under paid! 1, measurements were made only once for each baby – the subject. Thus the variability, expressed, say, by the standard deviation, is the between-subject variability. If, however, measurements are made repeatedly on one subject, we are assessing within-subject variability. 6 shows an example in which the resting carotid pulse rate, assessed by counting the beats in the neck against the second hand of a watch for 1 minute, was measured every 5 minutes for an hour.
1. Heart failure was identiﬁed when NT-proBNP >36 pmol/l. 1 Results of NT-proBNP assay in the general population over 45 and those with a previous diagnosis of heart failure (after Hobbs et al, 2002) Conﬁrmed diagnosis of heart failure NT-proBNP (pmol/l) >36 ≤36 Total Positive (T+) Negative (T−) Present Absent (D+) (D−) 35 (a) 68 (c) 103 7 (b) 300 (d) 307 Total 42 368 410 We denote a positive test result by T+, and a positive diagnosis of heart failure (the disease) by D+. 251 or approximately 25%.
Two other terms in common use are: the false negative rate (or probability of a false negative) which is given by c/(a + c) = 1 − Sensitivity, and the false positive rate (or probability of a false positive) or b/(b + d) = 1 − Speciﬁcity. 2. In such tables it is important for consistency always to put true diagnosis on the top, and test result down the side. Since sensitivity = 1 − Probability(false negative) and speciﬁcity = 1 − Probability(false positive), a possibly useful mnemonic to recall this is that ‘sensitivity’ and ‘negative’ have ‘n’s in them and ‘speciﬁcity’ and ‘positive’ have ‘p’s in them.