National Research Council (U. S.), Suzanne Donovan,'s Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education PDF

By National Research Council (U. S.), Suzanne Donovan, Christopher T. Cross

Particular schooling and proficient and proficient courses have been designed for kids whose academic wishes will not be good met in common study rooms. From their inceptions, those courses have had disproportionate illustration of racial and ethnic minority scholars. What explanations this disproportion? Is it an issue? "Minority scholars in targeted and talented schooling" considers attainable members to that disparity, together with early organic and environmental affects and inequities in possibilities for preschool and K-12 schooling, in addition to the probabilities of bias within the referral and evaluate approach that results in placement in specific courses. It examines the knowledge on early youth adventure, on alterations in academic chance, and on referral and site. The e-book additionally considers no matter if disproportionate illustration could be thought of an issue. Do unique education schemes offer invaluable academic providers, or do they set scholars off on a course of decrease academic expectancies? might scholars now not now positioned in proficient and gifted courses reap the benefits of raised expectancies, extra rigorous sessions, and the proficient label, or might they undergo failure in sessions for which they're unprepared? via studying this crucial challenge in U.S. schooling and making options for early intervention and basic schooling, in addition to for alterations in referral and evaluate tactics, "Minority scholars in specified and proficient schooling" should be an quintessential source to educators in the course of the state, in addition to to coverage makers in any respect degrees, from colleges and faculty districts to the country and federal governments.

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CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The identification for special education or gifted and talented programs that we set out to understand has at its core the phenomenon of individual student achievement. We have argued that where along the continuum of achievement the lines are drawn for specialized education is artificial and variable. Perhaps of greater concern, however, are factors that affect where a student falls along the continuum. For students having difficulty in school who do not have a medically diagnosed disability, key aspects of the context of schooling itself, including administrative, curricular/instructional, and interpersonal factors, may contribute to their identification as having a disability and may contribute to the disproportionately high or low placements of minorities.

The domains of policy that we considered central to the task of addressing disproportion included not only those that define special and gifted education, but also those that affect the early developmental trajectories of children, the quality of teaching to which children are exposed, and the classroom environments in which children must learn. Our perspective is one in which special education and gifted education are viewed as integral parts of the general education system, and addressing disproportion in special and gifted education will require addressing the entire educational system.

The steady rise in IQ scores of about 3 points per decade—well publicized as the “Flynn effect” (Flynn, 1984, 1987)—has presented a significant challenge to those who argue for a fixed-trait model of intelligence (Neisser, 1998). The malleability of mea- 28 MINORITY STUDENTS IN SPECIAL AND GIFTED EDUCATION sured IQ scores with early intervention programs also suggests a powerful influence of environment on cognitive performance. We attempt to capture relevant elements of the complexity that lies behind student achievement in Figure 1-2.

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