Monte Carlo Transport of Electrons and Photons by A. E. Nahum (auth.), Theodore M. Jenkins, Walter R. Nelson, PDF

By A. E. Nahum (auth.), Theodore M. Jenkins, Walter R. Nelson, Alessandro Rindi (eds.)

For ten days on the finish of September, 1987, a bunch of approximately seventy five scientists from 21 diverse international locations amassed in a restored monastery on a 750 meter excessive piece of rock jutting out of the Mediterranean Sea to debate the simulation of the shipping of electrons and photons utilizing Monte Carlo recommendations. after we first had the assumption for this assembly, Ralph Nelson, who had equipped a prior direction on the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for medical tradition, prompt that Erice stands out as the perfect position for any such assembly. Nahum, Nelson and Rogers turned Co-Directors of the path, with the aid of Alessandro Rindi, the Director of the college of Radiation harm and defense, and Professor Antonino Zichichi, Director of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre. The path was once an exceptional luck, either scientifically and socially, and people on the assembly will hold the marks of getting attended, either intellectually and on a private point the place many friendships have been made. The medical content material of the direction was once at a truly excessive quality, either as a result of the exertions performed by way of all of the teachers in getting ready their lectures (e. g. , whole copies of every lecture have been on hand firstly of the direction) and due to the prime quality of the "students", lots of whom have been comprehensive specialists within the box. the exceptional amenities of the Centre contributed drastically to the luck. This quantity comprises the formal checklist of the direction lectures.

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Hamm, "Review Article: A Monte Carlo Primer for Health Physicists", Health Phys. 48 (1985) 717. R. R. Wilson, "Monte Carlo Study of Shower Production", Phys. Rev. 86 (1952) 261. D. D. McCracken, "The Monte Carlo Method", Sci. Am. 192 (1955) 90. Symposium on Monte Carlo Methods, edited by H. A. Meyer (John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1954). H. S. Atomic Energy Commission report AECU-3259 (1956). T. Sidei, T. Higasimura and K. Kinosita, "Monte-Carlo Calculations of the Multiple Scattering of the Electron", Mem.

Additional calculations for hydrogen, oxygen and gold at other energies indicate that, by log-log cubic-spline interpolation on the basic grid of 11 energies, one can obtain cross sections at other energies with interpolation errors that are, at most, on the order of 1 percent, and generally much smaller. M. J. Berger and R. 8) The densities from Desclaux's code are applicable, strictly speaking, only to a gas of free atoms. We have also used densities appropriate to the solid state, taken from tables given in Ziegler, Biersack and Littmark 16 , which are based largely on calculations by Moruzzi, Janak and Williams 17 according to the muffin-tin model, adapted to the specific lattice structure of the material.

1 In the present work, we have not used recursion relations, but instead have relied on direct numerical quadrature to obtain the Gt's. This requires more computation, but nevertheless can be done rather easily and has several advantages. There is no need for developing accurate analytical approximations to the cross sections obtained with various potentials. It possible to apply an angular cutoff to the single-scattering cross sections. For large values of e, numerical integration was found to provide more accurate results than the use of recursion relations because the latter are subject to a buildup of round-off error, and can become unstable.

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