By Hanspeter Kriesi, Ruud Koopmans, Jan Willem Duyvendak, Marco G. Giugni
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Extra resources for New Social Movements In Western Europe: A Comparative Analysis (Social Movements, Protest and Contention)
With respect to the traditional cleavages, our second indicator shows that if the center-periphery cleavage gave rise to a particularly large number of events in France, it did not mobilize very many people. , the NATIONAL CLEAVAGE STRUCTURES 23 labor movement) were particularly mobilizing in France during the period under consideration. 5), the relative mobilization potential of the French new social movements is further reduced. 7 percent) of the total mobilization, compared to roughly twothirds of the total mobilization in each of the other three countries.
The French case has been particularly revealing in this respect. Our hypothesis that salient traditional cleavages can be quite constraining for the mobilization of new social movements has been confirmed by the French case. By contrast, where traditional cleavages are no longer closed and have been pacified, the new social movements seem, indeed, to find more “space” to mobilize. The availability of the social groups belonging to the constituency of the old and the new left—which are defined by the class cleavage—has turned out to be crucial in this respect, because these groups are most likely to form a constituency of the new social movements, too.
In this model of representative democracy, the government straddles the two arenas, being, on the one hand, responsible either to parliament (in a parliamentary system) or to the people (in a presidential system), and, on the other hand, in charge of the direction of the public administration. The reality of the political process, however, does not quite correspond to the classic division of labor between the two arenas that we find in the textbooks of constitutional law. Far from being the direct, linear result of parliamentary decision making, policy implementation also involves continuous negotiations, exchange processes, redefinitions, and reinterpretations of political objectives.