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By Sigmund Freud

Perguntando-se sobre os critérios – ao seu ver equivocados – usados pelos seres humanos para eleger os valores da vida que lhes são caros e assim traçar caminhos na busca pela felicidade, Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) inicia uma reflexão sobre a origem da necessidade do sentimento religioso no homem. Recuperando ideias de seus textos anteriores, ele compõe

“O mal-estar na cultura” (escrito em 1929 e publicado em 1930), um dos mais perturbadores ensaios jamais escritos no que diz respeito ao desenvolvimento cultural da humanidade.

Ao investigar por que o ser humano é tão pouco dotado para ser e permanecer feliz, Freud revela que um dos principais e invencíveis obstáculos à felicidade é a constituição psíquica do homem. Ele examina de perto – lançando mão de ferramentas psicanalíticas – o processo de desenvolvimento cultural necessário para que as pessoas possam viver em sociedade. A conclusão é a de que não só a civilização, mas a própria cultura humana implicam uma diminuição na felicidade dos indivíduos, tendo como subproduto um alienável e generalizado sentimento de culpa.

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Neither science on its own nor religion on its own will do the trick. 41 42 THE SPIRIT OF SANITY So what is the pattern of madness? What is madness? What is it? In my book on narcissism I use the phrase “narcissistic constellation”, and I posited the idea in that book that what constitutes narcissism is a refusal of the infinite in our being, what at that time I referred to as “the life-giver”. I’ve changed my way of thinking about it. It’s the same idea, but it’s like the refusal of this basic element out of which we are all constituted, and it is that which produces madness.

It happened in 30 THE SPIRIT OF SANITY Judaism, it happened in Christianity and in fact it happened in all the eastern religions. ” That was the Buddha, but it wasn’t too long before he was made basically into a god. Jesus was specifically made into a god. Mohammed, although not theologically, has effectively been made into a god, and the whole Salman Rushdie episode sort of proves it, really. But as soon as that happens, you get the position of “I mustn’t do this because I am told not to”, and as soon as that comes into play, conscience gets smothered.

In a correspondence with Elliot Jaques I suggested that one shouldn’t use the word “decision” because it’s so misapplied, and instead use some word like “realization” or “inner illumination” or “new understanding”. ” I say this because I think many many things that are called decisions are not decisions at all. They are reactions. Thinking of that man—what was it, what was that something that moved in the depths? That thought was a creative thought, and so something that has been created in the depths.

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