By V.C. Nielsen, J.H. Voorburg
Court cases of a round-table seminar, Silsoe, united kingdom, 15-19 April 1985.
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Additional resources for Odour Prevention and Control of Organic Sludge and Livestock Farming
B) half of the cattle manure is produced in the stable the other half during grazing. – arable land: 20% of mineral N. – grassland: grazing period: 40% of total N in urine and 5% of total N in faeces. land spreading: Summer (1/3 of the area) 50% of mineral N. Rest of the year 32% of mineral N. In a special study, made in charge of the Dutch government a yearly deposition of acids and acidifying compounds was calculated as summarised in table I. Table I . Deposition of acid and acidifying compounds 1) in molequiva-lents per ha per year in the Netherlands in the period round 1980.
Contact surface between manure and the air. This last factor explains why the main losses oceur after landspreading. After spreading on arable land this losses can be restricted by ploughing as soon as possible or by injection. On grassland this is not possible, moreover during the grazing season the droppings are exposed many days to high temperatures. One can estimate that there is a fair good correlation between N produced in animal manure and the ammonia emission. As the production of cattle slurry is linked with grassland and in many regions the main part of the manure from pigs and poultry is spread on arable land, there is a risk for underestimating the ammonia emissions from cattle slurry.
Van. 1981. V. te Ottersum. G. rapport no. 30. (4) BREEMEN, N. van. 1982. Soil acidification from atmospheric ammonium sulphate in forest canopy throughfall. Nature Volume 299, October 1982. (5) BUIJSMAN, E. 1983. Ammoniak-emissie in Nederland. Instituut voor Meteorologie en Oceanografie Rijksuniversiteit—Utrecht. Rapport V—83–3. (6) Commission of the European Communities. 1978. The spreading of animal excrement on utilized agricultural areas of the Community. Report Nr. 48 Aug. 1978. K. Summary A large proportion of the input of nitrogen (N) that remains unaccounted for during livestock production (up to 90% in grassland systems) is lost through volatilisation of ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere.