By John C. Stover
Because the authoritative source on optical scattering, this e-book was once built from a long time of training light-scatter size and research classes to optical engineers. Dr. Stover covers scattering starting with its fundamentals and masking floor roughness calculations, measurements, instrumentation, predictions, requisites, and commercial purposes. additionally integrated are appendices that evaluation the fundamentals of wave propagation and Kirchhoff diffraction. even if you are an optical engineer at present investigating roughness-induced haze within the semiconductor undefined, or simply getting into the sector of scatter metrology, this article will be beneficial.
- advent to mild Scatter
- floor Roughness
- Scatter Calculations and Diffraction Theory
- Calculation of Smooth-Surface data from the BRDF
- Polarization of Scattered Light
- Scatter Measurements and Instrumentation
- Scatter Predictions
- Detection of Discrete floor and Subsurface Defects
- commercial Applications
- Scatter Specifications
- assessment of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation
- Kirchhoff Diffraction from Sinusoidal Gratings
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Extra resources for Optical scattering : measurement and analysis
With Fig. 1 (where the 8 fl 's are just discrete values of 8 S ) and will be used throughout the book. Thus the direction of the specular beam is 0 s = 0. and ^s = 0. The retrodirection (for light scattered back into the incident specular beam) is given by 0, = 0. and 4) S = 180 degrees. Nicodemus started with a fairly complicated, general case of light reflected from a surface and made several logical approximations to arrive at a simple manageable form for BRDF. Since the object here is an understanding of the use of the expression and not its complete derivation, this review will be restricted to the relatively simple case of a nearly collimated beam of light reflecting from a sample.
5) are inherent. The trick is to get L large enough so that all the frequencies of interest are examined and, in any case, recognize and record the limitations for each practical situation. This limitation is analogous to the previously discussed light-scatter limitation imposed by spot size (Sec. 2). Less obvious is the limitation inherent at the high-spatial-frequency (short-wavelength) end of the spectrum. The defining Eqs. 3) and the deterministic examples assume that z(x) is known at all points.
A special case, the autocorrelation function, is used to compare a data set to a translated version of itself. Autocorrelation is carried out, as shown below, by multiplying the function times the translated version of itself and then averaging. It is essentially the average of a function convolved with itself. The quantity ti is the translation and is sometimes called slip or lag. For zero translation the averaged integral is a maximum. As the translation increases and ti approaches the size of prominent surface features, the integrand will sharply reduce in average value.