By John C. Stover
The 1st version of this e-book focused on pertaining to scatter from optically delicate surfaces to the microroughness on these surfaces. After spending six years within the semiconductor undefined, Dr. Stover has up-to-date and extended the 3rd version. Newly integrated are scatter versions for pits and debris in addition to using wafer scanners to find and measurement remoted floor gains. New sections conceal the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner company, constructing that microroughness is the noise, no longer the sign, in those platforms. Scatter measurements, now in many instances used to figure out no matter if small-surface positive factors are pits or debris and encouraging new know-how that offers details on particle fabric, also are mentioned. those new functions are actually supported by way of a sequence of overseas criteria, and a brand new bankruptcy stories these files.
New details on scatter from optically tough surfaces has additionally been extra. as soon as the severe restrict is passed, scatter can't be used to figure out surface-roughness records, yet significant details can nonetheless be acquired - particularly whilst measurements are made on industrially produced items. alterations in dimension are lined, and the reader will locate examples of scatter measurements made utilizing a digital camera for a fragment of the fee and in a fragment of the time formerly attainable. the assumption of touching on scatter to floor visual appeal is usually mentioned, and visual appeal has its personal brief bankruptcy. in any case, attractiveness is within the eye of the beholder, and what we see is scattered gentle.
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Extra info for Optical Scattering: Measurements and Analysis, Third Edition
This relationship is commonly referred to as the Rayleigh–Rice vector perturbation theory or the vector theory, and more recently as the Golden Rule. The theory consists of an equation for each of the two orthogonal polarizations. In the optics literature, s (perpendicular or occasionally TE) polarization is defined as the electric field vector perpendicular to the plane of propagation, and p (parallel or occasionally TM) polarization is defined as the electric vector in the plane of propagation.
The sinusoidal grating example can also be used to illustrate some practical measurement considerations. The tacit assumption has been made that when any of the diffracted powers are measured, the detector aperture is centered on the diffracted beam and is large enough to capture all of the power. Consider a measurement made by rotating the detector in the plane of incidence about the illuminated grating, as shown in Fig. 1. As the aperture approaches each diffracted spot center, the measured power increases to a maximum, holds steady, and then declines again to zero as the aperture leaves the spot.
Two effects work to discriminate against measurement of scatter from high-frequency roughness by TIS instruments. First, Davies’s analysis assumed that θ s θi , which is clearly not true at high-scatter angles. Examination of Eq. 4) shows that high-frequency roughness (large θ s ) scatters less light than low-frequency roughness of the same amplitude, and this effect is not accounted for in the TIS expression for rms roughness. Second, because signal light reflected by the scatter detector (and hence not detected) goes up with angle of incidence, the detector itself discriminates against high-angle scatter.