By Frano Barbir
Gas cells are electrochemical power conversion units that convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, generating electrical energy and warmth within the strategy and supplying gasoline potency and discounts in pollution. call for for this expertise is becoming swiftly. gas cells are being commercialized for desk bound and conveyable electrical energy new release, and instead for inner combustion engines in autos. Proton trade Membrane (PEM) gas cells specifically are experiencing an upsurge. they've got excessive energy density and will fluctuate their output quick to satisfy shifts in energy demand.
Until now, there was little written approximately this significant know-how. This publication lays the basis for gasoline mobilephone engineers, technicians and scholars. It covers the basic features of gas mobilephone layout, electrochemistry of the know-how, warmth and mass shipping, procedure layout and purposes to deliver this expertise to pros in any respect levels.
* complete consultant for engineers, researchers and policymakers
* Covers idea and perform of PEM gas cells
* includes hundreds and hundreds of unique illustrations and real-life engineering examples
Read or Download PEM Fuel Cells Theory and Practice Sustainable World Series PDF
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Additional info for PEM Fuel Cells Theory and Practice Sustainable World Series
Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of hydrogen/oxygen fuel cell as a function of temperature. "deg 11 = FIGURE 2-5. Efficiency of any energy conversion process. 7. Theoretical Fuel Cell Efficiency The efficiency of any energy conversion device is defined as the ratio betv^een useful energy output and energy input (Figure 2-5). In case of a fuel cell, the useful energy output is the electrical energy produced, and energy input is the enthalpy of hydrogen, that is, hydrogen's higher heating value (Figure 2-6).
Some may argue that for any hydrogen/oxygen or hydrogen/air system the high temperature source is the temperature of hydrogen/oxygen flame and that in this case no fuel cell efficiency can exceed the Carnot efficiency of an engine using this flame as the heat source. Although this may be correct, it has no relevance to the fuel cell where there is no flame and the theoretical efficiency is determined by the ratio between Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of the hydrogen/oxygen reaction regardless of the hydrogen/ oxygen flame temperature.
If voltage-current relationship is plotted in a logarithmic scale, the main parameters, a, b, and io, are easily detectable (Figure 3-3). 1 1 10 100 1000 10000 current density (mA/cm^) FIGURE 3-3. Potential loss due to activation polarization in log scale. If anode polarization is neglected, the previous equation becomes: Ecell = E r -—=rl^ aF T- (3-28) Vio which has the same form as the Tafel Equation (3-25). 2. Internal Currents and Crossover Losses Although the electrolyte, a polymer membrane, is not electrically conductive and is practically impermeable to reactant gases, some small amount of hydrogen will diffuse from anode to cathode, and some electrons may also find a ''shortcut" through the membranes.