Download PDF by E. Wolf (Ed.): Progress in Optics, Vol. 31

By E. Wolf (Ed.)

Hardbound. quantity 31 within the development in Optics sequence back proves the price of good written accomplished studies within the large box of optics.

the 1st article offers an intensive assessment of contemporary investigations relating multiphoton ionization of atoms in excessive radiation fields and comprises discussions on above threshold ionization, iteration of higher-order harmonics of an severe box interacting with a gaseous medium and the function of chaotic dynamics within the interplay of atoms with monochromatic radiation. an instructional part on chaotic habit is additionally included.

the second one article offers a evaluation of recent advancements concerning houses of sunshine diffracted through gratings. either a phenomenological remedy and a macroscopic research are presented.

in this article experiences advancements in terms of optical amplifiers, in particular these which use semiconductors and optical fibers. the item covers the working princip

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For low-energy electrons the rate at which this “spontaneous” radiation process produces detectable photons is very small. However, the process can be stimulated by high-intensity radiation and of course the possibility of stimulated absorption of radiation also exists as the electron undergoes a free-free transition between two continuum states; multiphoton free-free transitions are also possible. Such multiphoton processes were discussed by Kroll and Watson [ 19731, and the first experimental observations were made in 1977 (Weingartshofer, Holmes, Caudle, Clarke and Kruger [ 19771, Weingartshofer, Clarke, Holmes and Jung [ 19791).

Note that 11! 6. Considerable effort has been devoted over the past decade or so to different models of laser bandwidth and phase fluctuations, and their effect on multiphoton processes. For instance, an observed asymmetry in the curves of the three-photon ionization versus frequency was interpreted by Georges and Lambropoulos [ 1978, 19791as the result of a non-Lorentzian laser bandshape. Of course, the detailed temporal shape of the laser pulse also has an effect on the experimental observations, whereas the aforementioned perturbation theory assumed a perfectly monochromatic wave.

One such approximation, for instance, is the quantum defect method (Zon, Manakov and Rapoport [ 19701) based on the assumption that the dominant contribution to pubis from regions sufficiently far from the nucleus that an electron sees an effectively hydrogenic Coulomb field due to the charge of the residual ion. The problem of obtaining approximate wave functions is, of course, an old one in atomic theory, and we shall not discuss it further here. 28). Even for hydrogen this is not easy. We shall now survey briefly a few of the methods used to evaluate b$) in the case of photoionization, where the final state f belongs to the continuous spectrum.

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