By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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Extra info for Saline Water Conversion
The following technologies are available for subsurface dispersal of efﬂuent from small treatment systems: Chapter one: • • • • • • Onsite wastewater management: an overview 23 Trenches — gravity or pressure dosed, with or without gravel Drip — at or below grade Spray — above ground Filter beds — raised systems on sand-lined beds Evapotranspiration beds — with or without storage tanks Greenhouses — with or without storage tanks Since most of the dispersal technologies listed above use soil as a receiving medium for the partially treated efﬂuent, soil evaluation has been an integral part of using onsite wastewater systems.
Chapter one: Onsite wastewater management: an overview 21 Waterless systems Waterless toilets such as composting or incinerating toilets can be used to reduce the quantity of wastewater generated from a facility and also to change the quality of wastewater. However, one needs to deal with the residual products from such a facility, either composted material or ash, for ﬁnal disposal by using or recycling compost in a yard as fertilizer or by sending ash to a landﬁll. The remaining wastewater from the structure is called graywater (wastewater that comes from ﬁxtures other than toilets and/ or urinals), and it may be treated adequately using natural systems such as wetlands or other systems prior to subsurface dispersal.
When it is determined, however, that the soil and site conditions are not suitable for septic systems, homeowners then must retain services in the private sector of a consultant familiar with alternative systems and are asked to purchase the products and services necessary to install those systems. In some cases, unfamiliarity and low comfort level in the regulatory community with alternatives to the traditional septic system make it difﬁcult to obtain a permit for systems other than traditional septic systems.