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Act. Pt I 1/amawa from stäm(- ‘stand’ (whereas in the regular Pt II we find both sam- and may have turned either into *w’æt’k- or just into *wæt’k- (see immediately below); participial TA watk- then may rather come from pre-TA *w’æw’ätk-. , who prefers to explain the palatalization analogically. In my opinion, the case of TA kcäk/stäk militates against the claim by Ringe, 1996, 142 that the root-final palatalization found in TA forms such as pyockäs, plyockäs, and lyockäs first occurred just in TA s-preterits where the “initial consonants could no longer be distinctively palatalized” (that is, in forms such as pre-TA *w’ætk-, but not in forms such as pre-TA *(p)l’æwtk-, which according to Ringe had adopted the -ck- cluster very recently and secondarily), and had started out precisely as a device for making up for the lautgesetzlich loss of word-initial palatalization that had to affect initials such as *p’-, *py’-, and *w’- (but, of course, not *k’-).

Pl. forms of the prekar type, which must go back to *prækärä with accent on the second syllable. ). 1. sg. pl. sg. sg. sg. Prs II cäñcan-me from cä$k- ‘please’. sg. tekäM-me from täk- ‘touch’. Middle forms in °-(n/m)tär are, of course, usually too long to be subject to such a shift, but the forms of the copula ste and skente if suffixed indeed turn into star- and skentar-. sg. sem-nes (attested beside sema-ñ and semo < *semä) of the thematic preterit of käm- ‘come’, either as a result of Klingenschmitt’s rule (1994, 372 = 2005, 403, fn.

Rkk- in the PPt tsetsärkko1 295 a 3 (MQ) from tsärk- ‘heat’ or the sequence -rtt- even rather regularly met in forms built from the root art(t)(- ‘love’. , Hock, 1991, 128f. ). pl. Ipv cisso 108 a 2 and a 8 (S) from i- ‘go’, a variant of (p)ciso, itself a quite irregular outcome of what must have been pre-TB *päyäcäso. Since this form comes from an eastern text and from a manuscript that has many (other) informal and hypercorrect forms,26 one may conclude that this kind of gemination is also some kind of progressive-style phenomenon that has to be viewed together with the tendency of these styles to simplify consonant clusters.

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