Download e-book for kindle: Theory of light (Introduction to theoretical physics) by Planck M.

By Planck M.

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Therefore, shrinking the acceptance cone to match the angular divergence of the incoming irradiation from the sun would also lead to a restriction of the escape cone to a much smaller value. A concept to narrow down the acceptance/escape cone is the use of angular-selective reflectance filters and implementation of a photonic light trap [27, 43]. 6 sketches the working principle of this approach. Sunlight passes through an angular selective filter that features high transmittance 61 for an acceptance cone matched to the angular divergence of the sun light and low transmittance but high reflectance for all other angles of incidence.

The extraordinary antireflection and light trapping features of b-Si may be explained by an intuitive picture: On the one hand, the top of the texture consists of frayed tips of deep sub-wavelength dimensions that broaden slowly toward the wafer. Therefore, the surface can be treated as an effective medium with a smooth varying refractive index resulting in negligible back reflection, even for quasi-omnidirectional light incidence [16, 17]. On the other hand, the feature sizes at the bottom of the structure are in the range of a few hundred nanometers, that is, have dimensions of the wavelength of the incoming light.

A single-layer ARC minimizes light reflection of a particular design wavelength and angle of incidence only. This is in conflict with the broad solar spectrum and to the ever-changing altitude of the sun during the day. It is possible to minimize reflection losses for more than one wavelength by the use of double- or even more complex multi-layer antireflection coatings. However, another conceptual disadvantage of planar interference-based ARCs is their inherent symmetric mode of operation: They increase the flow of incoming light into the cell (at least for the design wavelength).

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