By David J. Hooper (auth.), F. Lamberti, C. E. Taylor, J. W. Seinhorst (eds.)
Although nematodes had lengthy been suspected as vectors of soil borne plant illnesses, unequivocal facts in their implication used to be now not impending till 1958 whilst Professor William Hewitt and his colleagues in California established experimentally that Xiphinema ~ used to be the vector of grapevine fanleaf virus. This unfolded a brand new and fascinating box in plant pathology and discoveries speedy of different nematode species linked to soil-borne illnesses of many alternative plants and in numerous nations. After the preliminary enthusiasm of researching new vectors and new viruses there a interval of consolidation within which study staff sought solutions to tantalising questions about the site of the virus in the nematode, the criteria governing the shut speci ficity among virus and vector; and extra mundane yet both very important and compelling questions on existence cycles, geographical distribution, host kinfolk, morphology and taxonomy. No different staff of nematodes has attracted this type of focused attempt involv ing many various medical specialisations and yielding loads development in a comparatively little while. The NATO complex learn Institute held at Riva dei Tessali, Italy, in the course of 19 may well to two June, 1974, supplied the discussion board for a serious dialogue of all features of biology of virus vector nema todes.
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Extra info for Nematode Vectors of Plant Viruses
M. (1968). Embryogenic studies of some Xiphinema and Longidorus species. i. 137-145. 10. E. D. (1957). Structure and function in nematodes: internal pressure and cuticular structure in Ascaris. J. expo BioI. 2i, 116-130. 11. Heyns, J. (1966). Studies on South African Xiphinema species, with descriptions of two new species displaying sexual dimorphism of the tail (Nematode: Dorylaimoidea). Nematologica 12, 369-384. 36 Coomans 12. G. (1966). The or1g1n and function of the cheilostomal complex in the nematode Falcaustra stewarti.
The prerectum leads to the rectum which is again ectodermal and lined with cuticle o The junction between prerectum and rectum is guarded by a sphincter muscle. Defaecation is mediated by another muscle, the H-shaped "depressor ani", extending from the dorsal wall of the rectum and the posterior lip of the anus to the latero- or sub-dorsal body wall. Since it acts in dilation rather than depression, the muscle should be better called "dilator ani"o BODY CAVITY The body cavity is quite large and is usually called a pseudocoelome, but it is difficult to find embryological evidence for this, since the blastocoel disappears completely during development and the body cavity originates in fact as a kind of schizocoel.
The characters of the genus Xiphinema are rather constant and firmly established; they permit its easy separation from Longidorus and Paralongidorus, the differences between these last two genera being less strictly established. , with the two genera Longidorus and Paralongidorus. The diagnoses of these two subfamilies are as follows: Xiphineminae: Chromosome number (n) : 5 or 10. Length of adult not exceeding 6 nun. Coefficient "a" generally lower than 80. Stirrup-shaped amphids. Strong odontostyle, forked at the junction with odontophore : base of odontophore with well developed flanges.