By Hillel I. Shuval
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Additional info for Water Quality Management Under Conditions of Scarcity
124, 125. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England. Wiener, A. (1973). ' T h e Role of Water in Development," Part 3. McGraw-Hill, New York. , and Wiener, A. (1962). Israel's national water system. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 54, 257-263. 3 National Water Resources Planning and Development in Israel—The Endangered Resource YAACOV VARDI I. II. III. IV. I. The Background Setting The Resources-Supply System . . Storage and Storage Depletion . . Some Quality Management Policy Options 37 39 43 46 The Background Setting An attempt will be made in this chapter to describe a somewhat unique situation: efforts to optimize the operation of an overcommitted water economy, with a steadily widening gap between its renewable resources and consumption.
These constraints are liable to become more acute as numerous major water supply and irrigation programs move into the implementation phase. Therefore, it will become necessary to avoid complex management measures requiring a great number of professional and subprofessional personnel, a great amount of information, extensive monitoring, costly chemicals, and complicated operations. Reliance will have to be placed on simple measures and sturdy equipment that is easy to maintain. On the other hand, the scarcity of water and the prevalence of serious water quality problems that characterize arid and semiarid regions will make it imperative to resort, even in LDCs in their early phases of development, to water quality management measures of the more complex type, classified here under the preactive mode.
Measures of this nature can, in various combinations, postpone the need to apply more costly and more energy-intensive water quality measures for many decades. The travel of some pollutants through the unsat- 28 Aaron Wiener urated sections of the soil profile between the surface and groundwater formations can, moreover, take considerable time—in arid climates, it can take decades. This delay, whether natural or contrived by water quality management measures, will usually be a most welcome boon; it means that heavy investment in pollution reduction can be put off.